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Published by: api-3699582 on Oct 14, 2008
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Ch\u00acng hai
giao d\u00dech trong th\u00acng m\u00b9i \u00aei\u00d6n t\u00f6
I. Chu\u00e7i gi\u00b8 tr\u00de th\u00acng m\u00b9i

Giao d\u00dech trong th\u00acng m\u00b9i l\u00b5 c\u00b8c ho\u00b9t \u00ae\u00e9ng, c\u00b8c thao t\u00b8c c\u00f4 th\u00d3 nh\u00bbm tr\u00f9c ti\u00d5p ho\u00c6c tr\u00ee gi\u00f3p t\u00b9o n\u00aan gi\u00b8 tr\u00de gia t\u00a8ng. Tr\u00edc khi nghi\u00aan c\u00f8u c\u00b8c giao d\u00dech trong th\u00acng m\u00b9i \u00aei\u00d6n t\u00f6, ch\u00f3ng ta h\u00b7y l\u00b5m quen v\u00edi kh\u00b8i ni\u00d6m v\u00d2 chu\u00e7i gi\u00b8 tr\u00de th\u00acng m\u00b9i v\u00b5 c\u00b8c th\u00b5nh ph\u00c7n c\u00f1a chu\u00e7i gi\u00b8 tr\u00de th\u00acng m\u00b9i trong th\u00acng m\u00b9i \u00aei\u00d6n t\u00f6.

1. Chu\u00e7i gi\u00b8 tr\u00de th\u00acng m\u00b9i

Khi m\u00e9t ng\u00eai ti\u00aau d\u00efng mua h\u00b5ng ho\u00b8 \u00eb m\u00e9t c\u00f6a h\u00b5ng, \u00ae\u00e3 ch\u00d8 l\u00b5 b\u00edc cu\u00e8i c\u00efng c\u00f1a m\u00e9t qu\u00b8 tr\u00d7nh ph\u00f8c t\u00b9p b\u00bet \u00ae\u00c7u vi\u00d6c t\u00b9o ra h\u00b5ng ho\u00b8 \u00ae\u00e3. T\u00b9i m\u00e7i b\u00edc trong qu\u00b8 tr\u00d7nh n\u00b5y, m\u00e9t l\u00eeng gi\u00b8 tr\u00de n\u00b5o \u00ae\u00e3 s\u00cf \u00ae\u00eec t\u00b9o l\u00cbp v\u00b5 b\u00e6 sung. Gi\u00b8 tr\u00de \u00ae\u00e3 c\u00e3 th\u00d3 t\u00f5 qu\u00b8 tr\u00d7nh tinh ch\u00d5 nguy\u00aan li\u00d6u, chia nh\u00b7 n\u00e3 \u00ae\u00d5n k\u00ddch th\u00edc v\u00b5 h\u00d7nh d\u00b8ng ph\u00ef h\u00eep, v\u00cbn chuy\u00d3n \u00ae\u00d5n n\u00aci ch\u00d5 bi\u00d5n, ch\u00d5 bi\u00d5n v\u00b5 b\u00b8n cho ng\u00eai ti\u00aau d\u00efng cu\u00e8i c\u00efng. \u00a7\u00abi khi ch\u00f3ng ta coi qu\u00b8 tr\u00d7nh k\u00d3 tr\u00aan l\u00b5 \u201cchu\u00e7i gi\u00b8 tr\u00de\u201d cho s\u00b6n ph\u00e9m - chu\u00e7i gi\u00b8 tr\u00de gia t\u00a8ng trong vi\u00d6c t\u00b9o n\u00aan v\u00b5 ph\u00a9n ph\u00e8i s\u00b6n ph\u00e9m.

M\u00c6c d\u00ef \u00fd t\u00ebng v\u00d2 chu\u00e7i gi\u00b8 tr\u00de gia t\u00a8ng \u00ae\u00eec th\u00d3 hi\u00d6n r\u00e2 nh\u00cat qua v\u00dd d\u00f4 qu\u00b8 tr\u00d7nh s\u00b6n xu\u00cat m\u00e9t s\u00b6n ph\u00e9m, ch\u00f3ng ta v\u00c9n c\u00e3 th\u00d3 s\u00f6 d\u00f4ng \u00fd t\u00ebng \u00ae\u00e3 \u00ae\u00d3 m\u00ab t\u00b6 nhi\u00d2u lo\u00b9i ho\u00b9t \u00ae\u00e9ng kinh doanh kh\u00b8c, bao g\u00e5m nhi\u00d2u th\u00b5nh ph\u00c7n nh\u00b7 t\u00b8ch bi\u00d6t c\u00f1a c\u00b6 chu\u00e7i r\u00e9ng l\u00edn v\u00f5a m\u00ab t\u00b6. Th\u00dd d\u00f4, ch\u00f3ng ta c\u00e3 th\u00d3 quan s\u00b8t chu\u00e7i gi\u00b8 tr\u00de trong m\u00e9t c\u00f6a h\u00b5ng b\u00b8n l\u00ce, bao g\u00e5m vi\u00d6c l\u00f9a ch\u00e4n h\u00b5ng ho\u00b8, mua h\u00b5ng ho\u00b8 \u00ae\u00e3 t\u00f5 c\u00b8c nh\u00b5 b\u00b8n bu\u00abn ho\u00c6c nh\u00b5 s\u00b6n xu\u00cat, tr- ng b\u00b5y h\u00b5ng ho\u00b8 cho h\u00cap d\u00c9n, qu\u00b6ng c\u00b8o \u00ae\u00d3 thu h\u00f3t ng\u00eai mua, gi\u00f3p kh\u00b8ch h\u00b5ng l\u00f9a ch\u00e4n m\u00c6t h\u00b5ng, thanh to\u00b8n ti\u00d2n h\u00b5ng v\u00b5 ph\u00a9n ph\u00e8i h\u00b5ng t\u00edi ng\u00eai ti\u00aau d\u00efng. M\u00e7i m\u00bet x\u00ddch trong chu\u00e7i k\u00d3 tr\u00aan \u00ae\u00d2u quan tr\u00e4ng \u00ae\u00e8i v\u00edi doanh nghi\u00d6p. Khi m\u00e9t m\u00bet x\u00ddch b\u00cat k\u00fa b\u00de ph\u00b8 v\u00ec, to\u00b5n th\u00d3 s\u00cf b\u00de t\u00b8c \u00ae\u00e9ng.

Ch\u00f3ng ta s\u00cf xem x\u00d0t vi\u00d6c tri\u00d3n khai m\u00e9t h\u00d6 th\u00e8ng cho th\u00acng m\u00b9i \u00aei\u00d6n t\u00f6 tr\u00aan g\u00e3c \u00ae\u00e9 chu\u00e7i gi\u00b8 tr\u00de c\u00c7n thi\u00d5t c\u00f1a doanh nghi\u00d6p. M\u00e9t ph\u00c7n, chu\u00e7i gi\u00b8 tr\u00de li\u00aan quan v\u00edi nh\u00f7ng ho\u00b9t \u00ae\u00e9ng kinh doanh c\u00ac b\u00b6n (v\u00dd d\u00f4: b\u00b8n s\u00b8ch), m\u00e9t ph\u00c7n kh\u00b8c s\u00cf th\u00d3 hi\u00d6n

r\u00e2 khi xem x\u00d0t chu\u00e7i gi\u00b8 tr\u00de ch\u00d8 \u00ae\u00c6c trng cho kinh doanh tr\u00f9c
tuy\u00d5n.Hi\u00d3u c\u00b8c v\u00can \u00ae\u00d2 n\u00b5y v\u00b5 l\u00b5m cho ch\u00f3ng t\u00acng th\u00ddch v\u00edi
nhau l\u00b5 m\u00e9t ph\u00c7n r\u00cat quan tr\u00e4ng \u00ae\u00e8i v\u00edi kinh doanh c\u00e3 hi\u00d6u qu\u00b6
tr\u00aan m\u00b9ng.
\u00eb \u00ae\u00a9y, ch\u00f3ng ta s\u00cf xem x\u00d0t m\u00e9t chu\u00e7i gi\u00b8 tr\u00de mang t\u00ddnh ch\u00cat
t\u00e6ng qu\u00b8t cho th\u00acng m\u00b9i \u00aei\u00d6n t\u00f6, \u00ae\u00eec m\u00ab t\u00b6 qua h\u00d7nh 4:
H\u00d7nh 4. Chu\u00e7i gi\u00b8 tr\u00de th\u00acng m\u00b9i.

Chu\u00e7i gi\u00b8 tr\u00de n\u00b5y t\u00cbp trung v\u00b5o m\u00e8i t\u00acng t\u00b8c gi\u00f7a doanh nghi\u00d6p v\u00edi kh\u00b8ch h\u00b5ng. C\u00b8c chi ti\u00d5t l\u00b5 kh\u00abng gi\u00e8ng nhau \u00ae\u00e8i v\u00edi c\u00b8c doanh nghi\u00d6p kh\u00b8c nhau, nhng c\u00e3 th\u00d3 th\u00cay, \u00ae\u00a9y l\u00b5 c\u00b8ch ti\u00d5p c\u00cbn t\u00e6ng qu\u00b8t, c\u00e3 hi\u00d6u qu\u00b6 trong vi\u00d6c x\u00a9y d\u00f9ng m\u00e9t c\u00b8ch th\u00f8c ti\u00d5p c\u00cbn \u00ae\u00e8i v\u00edi kinh doanh tr\u00f9c tuy\u00d5n.

C\u00b8c th\u00b5nh ph\u00c7n c\u00f1a chu\u00e7i gi\u00b8 tr\u00de t\u00e6ng qu\u00b8t n\u00b5y nh sau:
- Thu h\u00f3t kh\u00b8ch h\u00b5ng: Marketing - n\u00bem b\u00bet m\u00e8i quan t\u00a9m
c\u00f1a kh\u00b8ch h\u00b5ng;
- T\u00acng t\u00b8c v\u00edi kh\u00b8ch h\u00b5ng: B\u00b8n h\u00b5ng - bi\u00d5n m\u00e8i quan t\u00a9m c\u00f1a
kh\u00b8ch h\u00b5ng th\u00b5nh \u00ae\u00acn \u00ae\u00c6t h\u00b5ng;
- H\u00b5nh \u00ae\u00e9ng theo ch\u00d8 d\u00c9n c\u00f1a kh\u00b8ch h\u00b5ng: Qu\u00b6n l\u00fd \u00ae\u00acn
\u00ae\u00c6t h\u00b5ng, thanh to\u00b8n, th\u00f9c hi\u00d6n;
- Ph\u00b6n \u00f8ng l\u00b9i: D\u00dech v\u00f4 \u00ae\u00e8i v\u00edi ng\u00eai ti\u00aau d\u00efng, h\u00e7 tr\u00ee k\u00b8 thu\u00cbt.

Xem x\u00d0t chu\u00e7i gi\u00b8 tr\u00de c\u00f1a doanh nghi\u00d6p gi\u00f3p ch\u00f3ng ta x\u00b8c \u00ae\u00denh khu v\u00f9c tr\u00e4ng \u00aei\u00d3m - doanh nghi\u00d6p ho\u00b9t \u00ae\u00e9ng t\u00e8t nh\u00cat \u00eb khu v\u00f9c n\u00b5o, ho\u00c6c c\u00c7n \u00ae\u00c6t tr\u00e4ng t\u00a9m v\u00b5o khu v\u00f9c n\u00b5o nh\u00cat.

Th\u00dd d\u00f4, h\u00b7y quan s\u00b8t hai c\u00f6a h\u00b5ng b\u00b8n s\u00b8ch. M\u00e9t c\u00f6a h\u00b5ng t\u00cbp trung v\u00b5o vi\u00d6c cung \u00f8ng s\u00f9 l\u00f9a ch\u00e4n phong ph\u00f3 cho kh\u00b8ch h\u00b5ng, c\u00f6a h\u00b5ng kh\u00b8c t\u00cbp trung v\u00b5o d\u00dech v\u00f4 c\u00b8 nh\u00a9n. T\u00acng t\u00f9 nh v\u00cby, trong th\u00acng m\u00b9i \u00aei\u00d6n t\u00f6, nh\u00f7ng c\u00f6a h\u00b5ng s\u00b8ch nh v\u00cby s\u00cf tri\u00d3n


khai h\u00d7nh th\u00f8c kinh doanh c\u00f1a m\u00d7nh ho\u00b5n to\u00b5n kh\u00b8c nhau. N\u00d5u tr\u00e4ng t\u00a9m \u00ae\u00c6t v\u00b5o vi\u00d6c cung \u00f8ng s\u00f9 l\u00f9a ch\u00e4n phong ph\u00f3 cho kh\u00b8ch h\u00b5ng, th\u00d7 c\u00c7n t\u00b9o m\u00e9t c\u00ac s\u00ac d\u00f7 li\u00d6u m\u00b9nh v\u00b5 c\u00abng c\u00f4 t\u00d7m ki\u00d5m s\u00b8ch qua c\u00b8c c\u00b8ch th\u00f8c kh\u00b8c nhau (qua t\u00aan s\u00b8ch, nh\u00b5 xu\u00cat b\u00b6n, s\u00e8 \u00ae\u00a8ng k\u00fd, v.v.). N\u00d5u tr\u00e4ng t\u00a9m \u00ae\u00c6t v\u00b5o d\u00dech v\u00f4 c\u00b8 nh\u00a9n, ho\u00b9t \u00ae\u00e9ng c\u00f1a c\u00f6a h\u00b5ng s\u00cf h\u00edng v\u00b5o t\u00e6 ch\u00f8c c\u00b8c cu\u00e9c h\u00e9i th\u00b6o, tranh lu\u00cbn gi\u00f7a c\u00b8c kh\u00b8ch h\u00b5ng, t\u00acng t\u00b8c gi\u00f7a kh\u00b8ch h\u00b5ng v\u00b5 nh\u00a9n vi\u00aan c\u00f6a h\u00b5ng, v\u00b5 c\u00b8c lo\u00b9i d\u00dech v\u00f4 kh\u00b8c.

T duy th\u00cbn tr\u00e4ng v\u00d2 chu\u00e7i gi\u00b8 tr\u00de gi\u00f3p ch\u00f3ng tal\u00f9a ch\u00e4n
nh\u00f7ng \u00fd t\u00ebng quan tr\u00e4ng nh\u00cat trong danh m\u00f4c d\u00b5i c\u00b8c ho\u00b9t \u00ae\u00e9ng

th\u00acng m\u00b9i \u00aei\u00d6n t\u00f6. Khi chuy\u00d3n sang kinh doanh tr\u00aan Internet, ng\u00eai ta th\u00eang c\u00e3 xu h\u00edng c\u00e8 g\u00beng l\u00b5m m\u00e4i \u00aei\u00d2u, v\u00d7 m\u00e4i c\u00b8i d\u00eang nh th\u00cbt \u00ae\u00acn gi\u00b6n v\u00b5 c\u00e3 th\u00d3 l\u00b5m \u00ae\u00eec. C\u00c7n ph\u00b6i c\u00e3 m\u00e9t chi\u00d5n l\u00eec c\u00abng khai cho t\u00f5ng th\u00b5nh ph\u00c7n c\u00f1a chu\u00e7i gi\u00b8 tr\u00de, kh\u00abng ch\u00d8 \u00ae\u00acn thu\u00c7n v\u00d7 t\u00f5ng th\u00b5nh ph\u00c7n \u00ae\u00e3 trong m\u00e7i doanh nghi\u00d6p l\u00b5 kh\u00b8c bi\u00d6t, m\u00b5 c\u00dfn v\u00d7 doanh nghi\u00d6p kh\u00abng nh\u00cat thi\u00d5t ph\u00b6i t\u00f9 l\u00b5m t\u00cat c\u00b6 m\u00e4i vi\u00d6c. R\u00cat nhi\u00d2u doanh nghi\u00d6p s\u00f6 d\u00f4ng vi\u00d6c h\u00eep t\u00b8c \u00ae\u00d3 l\u00cap \u00ae\u00c7y chu\u00e7i gi\u00b8 tr\u00de, do v\u00cby c\u00b8c m\u00e8i li\u00aan k\u00d5t l\u00b5 r\u00cat m\u00b9nh m\u00cf.

\u00a7\u00d3 hi\u00d3u r\u00e2 h\u00acn v\u00d2 chu\u00e7i gi\u00b8 tr\u00de th\u00acng m\u00b9i, ch\u00f3ng ta s\u00cf nghi\u00aan
c\u00f8u chi ti\u00d5t c\u00b8c th\u00b5nh ph\u00c7n c\u00f1a n\u00e3 \u00eb ph\u00c7n ti\u00d5p theo.
2. C\u00b8c th\u00b5nh ph\u00c7n c\u00f1a chu\u00e7i gi\u00b8 tr\u00de th\u00acng m\u00b9i

C\u00b8c th\u00b5nh ph\u00c7n c\u00ac b\u00b6n c\u00f1a chu\u00e7i gi\u00b8 tr\u00de c\u00e3 th\u00d3 r\u00cat kh\u00b8c nhau trong c\u00b8c ng\u00b5nh kinh doanh kh\u00b8c nhau, k\u00d3 c\u00b6 trong c\u00b8c doanh nghi\u00d6p kh\u00b8c nhau thu\u00e9c m\u00e9t ng\u00b5nh kinh doanh c\u00f4 th\u00d3. \u00eb \u00ae\u00a9y, ch\u00f3ng ta xem x\u00d0t c\u00b8c th\u00b5nh ph\u00c7n c\u00f1a chu\u00e7i gi\u00b8 tr\u00de gia t\u00a8ng c\u00f1a th\u00acng m\u00b9i b\u00b8n l\u00ce trong th\u00acng m\u00b9i \u00aei\u00d6n t\u00f6, s\u00f6 d\u00f4ng ph\u00acng ph\u00b8p b\u00b8n h\u00b5ng qua catalog.

2.1. Thu h\u00f3t kh\u00b8ch h\u00b5ng

Th\u00b5nh ph\u00c7n \u00ae\u00c7u ti\u00aan trong chu\u00e7i gi\u00b8 tr\u00de gia t\u00a8ng c\u00f1a th\u00acng m\u00b9i Internet l\u00b5 thu h\u00f3t kh\u00b8ch h\u00b5ng. Thu h\u00f3t kh\u00b8ch h\u00b5ng l\u00b5 b\u00cat k\u00fa m\u00e9t ho\u00b9t \u00ae\u00e9ng n\u00b5o \u00ae\u00eec ti\u00d5n h\u00b5nh nh\u00bbm thu h\u00f3t kh\u00b8ch h\u00b5ng \u00ae\u00d5n website ban \u00ae\u00c7u, ho\u00c6c l\u00b5 th\u00abng qua qu\u00b6ng c\u00b8o tr\u00aan c\u00b8c website kh\u00b8c, qua th \u00aei\u00d6n t\u00f6, truy\u00d2n h\u00d7nh, b\u00b8o ch\u00dd ho\u00c6c c\u00b8c ho\u00b9t \u00ae\u00e9ng marketing kh\u00b8c. Tr\u00e4ng t\u00a9m c\u00f1a giai \u00aeo\u00b9n n\u00b5y l\u00b5 g\u00a9y \u00can t\u00eeng \u00ae\u00e8i v\u00edi kh\u00b8ch h\u00b5ng v\u00b5 l\u00abi cu\u00e8n h\u00e4 \u00ae\u00d5n catalog h\u00b5ng ho\u00b8 chi ti\u00d5t ho\u00c6c


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