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CHUONG3

CHUONG3

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Published by: api-3699582 on Oct 14, 2008
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03/18/2014

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Ch\u00acng ba
thanh to\u00b8n trong th\u00acng m\u00b9i \u00aei\u00d6n t\u00f6

Trong cu\u00e9c s\u00e8ng hi\u00d6n \u00ae\u00b9i, c\u00e3 th\u00d3 ti\u00d5n h\u00b5nh thanh to\u00b8n theo nhi\u00d2u ph\u00acng th\u00f8c kh\u00b8c nhau nh: ti\u00d2n m\u00c6t, s\u00d0c, th\u00ce t\u00ddn d\u00f4ng ho\u00c6c th\u00ce ghi n\u00ee... C\u00b8c doanh nghi\u00d6p khi ti\u00d5n h\u00b5nh thanh to\u00b8n c\u00f2ng th\u00eang d\u00efng c\u00b8c ph\u00acng ti\u00d6n \u00aei\u00d6n t\u00f6, nhng \u00ae\u00e3 ch\u00d8 l\u00b5 c\u00b8c m\u00b9ng n\u00e9i b\u00e9 c\u00f1a m\u00e9t doanh nghi\u00d6p. Gi\u00ea \u00ae\u00a9y, c\u00efng v\u00edi s\u00f9 ph\u00b8t tri\u00d3n c\u00f1a c\u00abng ngh\u00d6, c\u00f1a c\u00b8c ho\u00b9t \u00ae\u00e9ng th\u00acng m\u00b9i tr\u00aan Internet v\u00b5 s\u00f9 ph\u00e6 bi\u00d5n c\u00f1a Web, c\u00b8c giao d\u00dech thanh to\u00b8n \u00aeang \u00ae\u00eec th\u00f9c hi\u00d6n ng\u00b5y c\u00b5ng nhi\u00d2u theo ph\u00acng th\u00f8c thanh to\u00b8n tr\u00aan Internet haythanh

to\u00b8n tr\u00f9c tuy\u00d5n trong th\u00acng m\u00b9i \u00aei\u00d6n t\u00f6.
X\u00d0t tr\u00aan nhi\u00d2u ph\u00acng di\u00d6n, thanh to\u00b8n tr\u00f9c tuy\u00d5n l\u00b5 n\u00d2n
t\u00b6ng c\u00f1a c\u00b8c h\u00d6 th\u00e8ng th\u00acng m\u00b9i \u00aei\u00d6n t\u00f6. S\u00f9 kh\u00b8c bi\u00d6t c\u00ac b\u00b6n
gi\u00f7a th\u00acng m\u00b9i \u00aei\u00d6n t\u00f6 v\u00edi c\u00b8c \u00f8ng d\u00f4ng kh\u00b8c m\u00b5 Internet cung
c\u00cap ch\u00ddnh l\u00b5 nh\u00ea kh\u00b6 n\u00a8ng thanh to\u00b8n tr\u00f9c tuy\u00d5n n\u00b5y.
I. T\u00f5 c\u00b8c h\u00d6 th\u00e8ng thanh to\u00b8n truy\u00d2n th\u00e8ng t\u00edi h\u00d6 th\u00e8ng thanh
to\u00b8n \u00aei\u00d6n t\u00f6
1. Ti\u00d2n t\u00d6 trong th\u00acng m\u00b9i truy\u00d2n th\u00e8ng v\u00b5 th\u00acng m\u00b9i
\u00aei\u00d6n t\u00f6

Trong su\u00e8t l\u00dech s\u00f6 ph\u00b8t tri\u00d3n, con ng\u00eai \u00ae\u00b7 th\u00f9c hi\u00d6n gi\u00b8 tr\u00de trao \u00ae\u00e6i theo nhi\u00d2u c\u00b8ch th\u00f8c kh\u00b8c nhau. T\u00f5 xa xa, vi\u00d6c trao \u00ae\u00e6i h\u00b5ng ho\u00b8 v\u00b5 d\u00dech v\u00f4 \u00ae\u00b7 \u00ae\u00eec ti\u00d5n h\u00b5nh b\u00bbng ph\u00acng th\u00f8c trao \u00ae\u00e6i (h\u00b5ng l\u00cay h\u00b5ng) ho\u00c6c th\u00abng qua nh\u00f7ng ph\u00acng ti\u00d6n bi\u00d3u trng cho gi\u00b8 tr\u00de: ti\u00d2n t\u00d6. Ch\u00f3ng bao g\u00e5m: ti\u00d2n v\u00cbt th\u00d3 v\u00b5 ti\u00d2n bi\u00d3u trng (token money & notational money).

Ti\u00d2n v\u00cbt th\u00d3th\u00eang \u00ae\u00eec \u00ae\u00f3c b\u00bbng kim lo\u00b9i ho\u00c6c \u00ae\u00eec l\u00b5m b\u00bbng

gi\u00cay. Ti\u00d2n v\u00cbt th\u00d3 c\u00e3 gi\u00b8 tr\u00de v\u00b5 gi\u00b8 tr\u00de n\u00e9i t\u00b9i (l\u00eeng lao \u00ae\u00e9ng x\u00b7 h\u00e9i c\u00c7n thi\u00d5t). Kho\u00b6ng 2000 - 3000 ngh\u00d7n n\u00a8m tr\u00edc \u00ae\u00a9y, l\u00c7n \u00ae\u00c7u ti\u00aan ch\u00f3ng \u00ae\u00b7 \u00ae\u00eec s\u00f6 d\u00f4ng \u00ae\u00d3 bi\u00d3u trng cho nh\u00f7ng gi\u00b8 tr\u00de c\u00f4 th\u00d3. C\u00b8c lo\u00b9i ti\u00d2n kim lo\u00b9i c\u00e6 xa c\u00efng v\u00edi nh\u00f7ng v\u00cbt trao \u00ae\u00e6i trung gian n\u00b5y c\u00e3 gi\u00b8 tr\u00de t\u00acng \u00ae\u00acng v\u00edi gi\u00b8 tr\u00de c\u00f1a m\u00e9t l\u00eeng kim lo\u00b9i qu\u00fd \u00ae\u00eec x\u00b7 h\u00e9i c\u00abng nh\u00cbn. \u00a7\u00a9y ch\u00ddnh l\u00b5 c\u00ac s\u00eb cho nh\u00f7ng h\u00d7nh th\u00f8c trao \u00ae\u00e6i hi\u00d6n \u00ae\u00b9i.

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Ng\u00b5y nay, gi\u00b8 tr\u00de c\u00f1a ti\u00d2n v\u00cbt th\u00d3 c\u00f2ng l\u00b5 gi\u00b8 tr\u00de bi\u00d3u trng - n\u00e3 \u00ae\u00eec m\u00e4i ng\u00eai ch\u00cap nh\u00cbn, b\u00ebi do m\u00e9t ch\u00ddnh ph\u00f1 \u00ae\u00f8ng ra ph\u00b8t h\u00b5nh v\u00b5 c\u00abng b\u00e8 gi\u00b8 tr\u00de c\u00f1a n\u00e3; v\u00b5 gi\u00b8 tr\u00de \u00ae\u00e3 th\u00eang \u00ae\u00eec th\u00d3 hi\u00d6n khi so s\u00b8nh v\u00edi \u00ae\u00e5ng ti\u00d2n c\u00f1a qu\u00e8c gia kh\u00b8c.

Tr\u00b8i l\u00b9i, ti\u00d2n bi\u00d3u trng li\u00aan quan \u00ae\u00d5n vi\u00d6c \u00ae\u00b9i di\u00d6n cho m\u00e9t gi\u00b8 tr\u00de \u00ae\u00eec c\u00cat tr\u00f7 \u00eb m\u00e9t n\u00aci kh\u00b8c. Th\u00dd d\u00f4, m\u00e9t t\u00ea s\u00d0c tuy ho\u00b5n to\u00b5n kh\u00abng c\u00e3 gi\u00b8 tr\u00de n\u00e9i t\u00b9i nhng n\u00e3 \u00ae\u00b9i di\u00d6n cho m\u00e9t cam k\u00d5t chuy\u00d3n ti\u00d2n v\u00b5 \u00ae\u00eec ch\u00cap nh\u00cbn trong thanh to\u00b8n; N\u00e3 c\u00f2ng kh\u00abng \u00ae\u00eec lu chuy\u00d3n t\u00f9 do m\u00b5 ch\u00d8 c\u00e3 gi\u00b8 tr\u00de \u00ae\u00e8i v\u00edi b\u00aan c\u00e3 t\u00aan \u00ae\u00eec ghi tr\u00aan t\u00ea s\u00d0c. C\u00b8c c\u00abng c\u00f4 thanh to\u00b8n m\u00eb r\u00e9ng t\u00ddn d\u00f4ng c\u00f2ng l\u00b5 m\u00e9t d\u00b9ng c\u00f1a lo\u00b9i ti\u00d2n n\u00b5y. Th\u00dd d\u00f4, khi m\u00e9t ng\u00eai s\u00f6 d\u00f4ng th\u00ce t\u00ddn d\u00f4ng \u00ae\u00d3 thanh to\u00b8n t\u00f8c l\u00b5 h\u00e4 ch\u00cap nh\u00cbn s\u00cf thanh to\u00b8n m\u00e9t kho\u00b6n ti\u00d2n t\u00b9i m\u00e9t th\u00eai \u00aei\u00d3m n\u00b5o \u00ae\u00e3 trong t\u00acng lai v\u00b5 \u00aei\u00d2u n\u00b5y \u00ae\u00eec \u00ae\u00b6m b\u00b6o b\u00ebi m\u00e9t t\u00e6 ch\u00f8c t\u00b5i ch\u00ddnh, n\u00aci ph\u00b8t h\u00b5nh th\u00ce t\u00ddn d\u00f4ng \u00ae\u00e3.

M\u00e9t v\u00b5i th\u00cbp k\u00fb tr\u00edc \u00ae\u00a9y, h\u00e8i phi\u00d5u, c\u00b8c lo\u00b9i \u00ae\u00b8 v\u00b5 kim lo\u00b9i qu\u00fd thay nhau \u00ae\u00eec s\u00f6 d\u00f4ng trong thanh to\u00b8n v\u00b5 trao \u00ae\u00e6i; nhng t\u00f5 th\u00cbp k\u00fb 90 c\u00f1a th\u00d5 k\u00fb XX, khi c\u00b8c h\u00d6 th\u00e8ng thanh to\u00b8n \u00aei\u00d6n t\u00f6 ra \u00ae\u00eai, \u00ae\u00b7 c\u00e3 m\u00e9t cu\u00e9c c\u00b8ch m\u00b9ng l\u00b5m thay \u00ae\u00e6i c\u00b8ch mua b\u00b8n h\u00b5ng ho\u00b8, d\u00dech v\u00f4 \u00aeang t\u00e5n t\u00b9i. C\u00efng v\u00edi n\u00e3, ph\u00acng th\u00f8c thanh to\u00b8n c\u00f2ng c\u00e3 nh\u00f7ng thay \u00ae\u00e6i l\u00edn. (H\u00d7nh 5 v\u00b5 6).

H\u00d7nh 5: Thanh to\u00b8n cho h\u00b5ng ho\u00b8 v\u00b5 d\u00dech v\u00f4 theo c\u00b8ch
th\u00f8c truy\u00d2n th\u00e8ng.
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H\u00d7nh 6: Thanh to\u00b8n cho h\u00b5ng ho\u00b8 v\u00b5 d\u00dech v\u00f4 s\u00f6 d\u00f4ng c\u00b8c
c\u00abng ngh\u00d6 \u00aei\u00d6n t\u00f6.
H\u00c7u h\u00d5t c\u00b8c h\u00d6 th\u00e8ng thanh to\u00b8n tr\u00aan Internet, v\u00b5 \u00ae\u00c6c bi\u00d6t
trong th\u00acng m\u00b9i \u00aei\u00d6n t\u00f6 hi\u00d6n nay \u00ae\u00d2u s\u00f6 d\u00f4ng lo\u00b9i ti\u00d2n bi\u00d3u tr-
ng bao g\u00e5m: th\u00ce t\u00ddn d\u00f4ng, \u00ae\u00acn mua h\u00b5ng (th\u00f9c ch\u00cat l\u00b5 \u00ae\u00b9i di\u00d6n

cho cam k\u00d5t thanh to\u00b8n m\u00e9t kho\u00b6n ti\u00d2n t\u00b9i m\u00e9t th\u00eai \u00aei\u00d3m trong t\u00acng lai) v\u00b5 chuy\u00d3n kho\u00b6n \u00aei\u00d6n t\u00f6. B\u00aan c\u00b9nh \u00ae\u00e3 c\u00f2ng c\u00e3 m\u00e9t s\u00e8 h\u00d6 th\u00e8ng m\u00edi nh c\u00b8c d\u00b9ng kh\u00b8c nhau c\u00f1a ti\u00d2n m\u00c6t \u00aei\u00d6n t\u00f6, th\u00f9c ch\u00cat l\u00b5 d\u00b9ng ti\u00d2n v\u00cbt th\u00d3 nhng \u00eb d\u00b9ng \u00aei\u00d6n t\u00f6.

2. C\u00b8c ph\u00acng ti\u00d6n thanh to\u00b8n trong th\u00acng m\u00b9i truy\u00d2n
th\u00e8ng

X\u00d0t v\u00d2 nhi\u00d2u ph\u00acng di\u00d6n, thanh to\u00b8n tr\u00f9c tuy\u00d5n kh\u00abng kh\u00b8c nhi\u00d2u so v\u00edi c\u00b8c h\u00d7nh th\u00f8c thanh to\u00b8n trong th\u00acng m\u00b9i truy\u00d2n th\u00e8ng. Ch\u00f3ng ta \u00ae\u00d2u mu\u00e8n c\u00b8c giao d\u00dech thanh to\u00b8n tr\u00f9c tuy\u00d5n c\u00e3 gi\u00b8 tr\u00de nh c\u00b8c giao d\u00dech thanh to\u00b8n truy\u00d2n th\u00e8ng, n\u00aan v\u00d2 nguy\u00aan t\u00bec, c\u00b8c h\u00d6 th\u00e8ng thanh to\u00b8n tr\u00f9c tuy\u00d5n \u00ae\u00eec x\u00a9y d\u00f9ng d\u00f9a tr\u00aan c\u00ac s\u00eb c\u00b8c k\u00fc thu\u00cbt thanh to\u00b8n truy\u00d2n th\u00e8ng. V\u00d7 v\u00cby, tr\u00edc khi nghi\u00aan c\u00f8u c\u00b8c h\u00d6 th\u00e8ng thanh to\u00b8n trong th\u00acng m\u00b9i \u00aei\u00d6n t\u00f6, ch\u00f3ng ta s\u00cf ph\u00a9n t\u00ddch m\u00e9t s\u00e8 ph\u00acng ph\u00b8p thanh to\u00b8n c\u00ac b\u00b6n trong th\u00acng m\u00b9i truy\u00d2n th\u00e8ng, t\u00d7m ra nh\u00f7ng \u00ae\u00c6c t\u00ddnh c\u00e3 th\u00d3 gi\u00f7 l\u00b9i v\u00b5 nh\u00f7ng \u00ae\u00c6c t\u00ddnh c\u00e3 th\u00d3 ho\u00b5n thi\u00d6n h\u00acn khi x\u00a9y d\u00f9ng c\u00b8c ph\u00acng ph\u00b8p thanh to\u00b8n tr\u00f9c tuy\u00d5n.

2.1. Ti\u00d2n m\u00c6t
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