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Fundamentals of Computational Fluid Dynamics

Fundamentals of Computational Fluid Dynamics

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Fundamentals of Computational Fluid
Dynamics
Harvard Lomax and Thomas H. Pulliam
NASA Ames Research Center
David W. Zingg
University of Toronto Institute for Aerospace Studies
August 26, 1999
Contents
1 INTRODUCTION
1
1.1 Motivation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1
1.2 Background. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2
1.2.1 Problem Speci\ufb01cation and Geometry Preparation. . . . . . .
2
1.2.2 Selection of Governing Equations and Boundary Conditions .
3
1.2.3 Selection of Gridding Strategy and Numerical Method. . . .
3
1.2.4 Assessment and Interpretation of Results. . . . . . . . . . . .
4
1.3 Overview. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4
1.4 Notation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5
2 CONSERVATION LAWS AND THE MODEL EQUATIONS
7
2.1 ConservationLaws. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7
2.2 The Navier-Stokes and Euler Equations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8

2.3 The Linear Convection Equation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 2.3.1 Di\ufb00erentialForm. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 2.3.2 Solution in Wave Space. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13

2.4 The Di\ufb00usion Equation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 2.4.1 Di\ufb00erentialForm. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 2.4.2 Solution in Wave Space. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15

2.5 Linear Hyperbolic Systems. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
2.6 Problems. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
3 FINITE-DIFFERENCE APPROXIMATIONS
21
3.1 Meshes and Finite-Di\ufb00erence Notation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
3.2 Space Derivative Approximations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24

3.3 Finite-Di\ufb00erenceOperators. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 3.3.1 Point Di\ufb00erence Operators. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 3.3.2 Matrix Di\ufb00erence Operators. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 3.3.3 PeriodicMatrices. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 3.3.4 CirculantMatrices. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30

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