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Sample Exam Test

Sample Exam Test

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 English Phonetics/Phonology/Morphology Exam
Katalin Balogné BércesSample test (originally exam 3 on 18 January 2005)Working time: 70 minsQuestions refer to RP unless explicitly indicated otherwise.WORD = Kristó, L. (May 2004) The English word.Kristó (2004b) =
Words and meanings
. In: Dubs, K. (ed.)
What does it mean?
Piliscsaba: PPKE. (pp. 248-270)Balogné (2004) =
On the notion
word
and its role as a phonological constituent 
. In: Dubs, K. (ed.)
What does it mean?
Piliscsaba: PPKE. (pp. 240-247)Part A: Multiple-Choice Questions (26 pts: 1 pt each)
 Data
1. Which of the following RP vowels is rounded?a.
 
c.
 b.
d.
2. Which of the following consonants canNOT form a two-member onset with /
 
/ in English?a.
 
c.
 
 b.
d.
  
3. Which of the following word pairs illustrates unmotivated VowelShift?a.
do – does
c.
tone – tonic
 b.
crime – criminal 
d.
vain – vanity
4. Closed-syllable shortening basically refers to the same regularityas ...a. Pre-cluster Laxingc. Trisyllabic Laxing b. Degeminationd. Broadening5. In which of the following words is Yod-Dropping optional in RP?a.
rude
c.
 suit 
 b.
during 
d.
new
6. Which of the following rules is totally insensitive to morphologicaland syntactic structure?a. palatalisation b. nasal place assimilationc. consonant elisiond. R-dropping7. In which of these words is the vowel the shortest?a.
bean
c.
bead 
 b.
bee
d.
beat 
8. Which of the underlined
’s is always aspirated in both RP andGeneral American?a.
hesitate
c.
twenty
 b.
 flatter 
d.
competitive
9. A /
/ can NOT undergo ...a. aspirationc. flapping b. devoicingd. elision10. In RP, as opposed to GA, /
 
/ can only become syllabic...a. word-internallyc. in stressed position b. word-finallyd.
 None of 
a, b
or 
c.11. The word
cart 
does NOT exemplify ...a. Aspirationc. Pre-R Breaking b. R-droppingd. Pre-Fortis Clipping12. Which of the following grammatical function words canNOT be pronounced /

/?a.
the
c.
there
 b.
their 
d.
they
13. Which of these sound changes is a characteristically Britishinnovation?a. (extended) Yod-droppingc. Diphthong Shift b. t/d-tapping/flappingd. LOT Unrounding
 Answers
a.b.c.d.1.X2.X3.X4.X5.X6.X7.X8.X9.X10.X11.X12.X13.X
1
 
 Analysis/theory
14. Oral sounds are produced by … the velum.a. raisingc. opening b. loweringd. pulling bac15. Syncope rules … segments.a. movec. insert b. deleted. assimilate16. The difference between inflection and derivation is that ...a. in inflection there is pressure for all the members of the paradigm to be present, in derivation there are many accidental gaps. b. inflection forms new lexemes, derivation forms new word-forms.c. inflection is a more open system, derivation is a more closedsystem.d. inflection is always class-changing, derivation is always class-maintaining.17. Which of the following words has an ult with a branching onset?a.
horizon
c.
algebra
 b.
 propaganda
d.
Matilda
18. Which of the following characterises postlexical rules?a. essentially no exceptions b. morphological information decisivec. distinctive alternating soundsd. not particularly natural phonological process19. The nucleus of the syllable /

/ is ...a. /

/c. /

/ b. /
 
/d. /

/20. Which of the following is a well-formed partial sonorityhierarchy?a.
<
 
<
<
c.
<
<
<
 
 b.
 
<
  
<
 
<
d.
 
<
<
<
 
21. Bogus cluster is the name given to consonant cluters that ...a. can only appear word-medially. b. cannot appear word-medially.c. can appear word-initially but not word-medially.d. can appear word-finally but not word-initially.22. Which of the following features must change its value to bringabout the /
 
/ → /
/ change?a. [coronal]c. [nasal] b. [sonorant]d. [voice]23. Compensatory lengthening illustrates ...a. the independence of timing relations from other aspects of  phonological representation. b. the naturalness of lexical phonological processes.c. a major weakness of Generative Phonology.d. the relative ease of dropping consonants.24. Which of the following stressed vowel letters is in covered graphic position?a.
taxi
c.
later 
 b.
 scruple
d.
manor 
25. Which of these letters does NOT have /

/ as one of its regular sound values?a. <a>c. <ai> b. <e>d. <ey>26. According to Balogné (2004), compounds like
lifestyle
...a. behave like single p-words in English. b. are morphologically simple.c. do not reduce their second terms to zero stress.d. treat their terms as separate units grammatically.
 Answers
a.b.c.d.14.X15.X16.X17.X18.X19.X20.X21.X22.X23.X24.X25.X26.X
2
 
Part B: Open-ended Questions (20 pts: 2 pts each)1. The three groups of sonorant consonants are …2. The plain lax vowels of RP are ... (list their symbols!)3. Give an example of a position in which the plain lax vowels listed above can NOT normally appear.4. Kristó (2004b) uses
Tarzanlike
and
 Jabbalike
to illustrate the on-line, on-the-spot formation of unconventionalized items thatare usually referred to as ...5. The name of the phonological rule governing the choice of the form of the suffix -
val/-vel 
'with' in Hungarian, as in
madárral 
'with bird' as opposed to
egérrel 
'with mouse' (described in Balogné 2004) is ...6. In morphology, the situation when a single form represents several grammatical words within the paradigm is best referred toas ...7. In three-member onsets in English the first consonant is always ...8. In the word
 gradual 
(cf.
 grade
), the vowel undergoes a rule causing Vowel Shift called ...9. Using the numbers 1 (primary), 2 (secondary), 3 (tertiary or strong unstressed), and 0 (completely unstressed), indicate the stressdegree of the syllables in the word
domesticity
.10. List at least three words (other than
carrot 
) in which the Carrot-rule applies.Part C: Analysis (10 pts)Consider the word
radiator 
.1. Indicate the stress degree of the syllables using numbers. (1 pt)2. Characterize the morpheme – 
or 
. What kind of morpheme is it? List as many characteristics as you can (2 pts)3. What kind of morpheme is – 
or 
as far as its phonological behaviour is concerned? Is it able to influence the phonological shapeof the base? (2 pts)
 Answers
Part B:1. nasals, liquids, glides2. /
 U 
(or 
E
)
  Ă
/3. word-finally, prevocalically, before a dropped /r/, infree graphic position...4. nonce words/items5. vowel harmony6. syncretism7. /s/8. Pre-u Laxing9. 20100 or 2310010. mirror, merry, miracle, paradise, hurricane...Part C:1. 10302. deverbal nominal agentive derivational suffix3. analytic (/strong-boundary/neutral/ClassII):unable to influence the base phonologically
3

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