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Developing the Whole Child - Horticultural Therapy

Developing the Whole Child - Horticultural Therapy

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Published by Karagianni9581

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Categories:Topics, Art & Design
Published by: Karagianni9581 on Sep 20, 2011
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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09/20/2011

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CHAPTER8
Moving
88
NATURALLEARNING
 
PartII:
DevelopingtheWholeChild
 
Chapter8
MOVING
Movingstimulatesthekinesthetic,proprioceptive,andvestibularsenses.Itisacriticalpartofnormalchilddevelopment.Givenaccess,opportunity,andadultencouragement,childrenwillnaturallyexploretheirsurroundings.Theneedformovementprovidesaratio-naleforcreatingqualityenvironmentscapableofsustainingpositivelearningandphysicalandmentalgrowth.Thisisparticularlyimportantinhighlyindustri-alizedsocietieswherechil-dren'sopportunitiesformovementarebecomingrestrictedbytelevisionviewingandissuesofsafetyandliability.
T
oomanychildrentodayhavestoppedmoving.
In
industrializedcountriesandinaffluent,middle-classcommunitiesacrosstheworld,childrenarespendingtoomuchoftheirtimeindoorswithtelevision,computers,andvideogames,ratherthanexercisingtheirbodiesinoutdoor,free-playactivity.
In
theUnitedStates,wherethesetrendsarethemostadvanced,childhoodobesityhasbecomeamajorhealthissue.
I
Theincreaseinsedentary,indooractivitieshasbeendriveninpartbyadecreaseinopportunitiesforoutdoorplayThegrowthofpublicviolencehasmadeparentsfearfulaboutlettingtheirchildrenouttoplayontheirown.Inthemajorityoffamilieswithchildren,theparentsworkandarenotathomewhenchildrenreturnfromschool.Apprehensionaboutsocialrisksintheout-doorenvironmenthasencouragedmanyparentstoenrolltheirchildreninafterschoolprograms,suchasmusic,gymnastics,ecology,cooking,andartThebestprogramsofferanarrayofcreative,nonformalactivitiestoservechildren'svariedinterests;manyprograms,however,donotprovidethislevelofqualityForthemil-lionsofchildrenwhoseparentscannotaffordafter-schoolcare,watchingtelevisionhasbecometheirprima-ryleisureactivityIndoorprogramshavebeguntoreplaceoutdoorinformalplayintheleisuretimeofmanymiddle-classchildren.Manyprograms,ofcourse,incorporatephysi-caleducation(thoughrarelyoutdoors).Butfewpro-gramsfocusonfreeplayasamainactivity,largelybecause
it
ishardto"sell,"atleastintheUnitedStates.Inothercountries,suchastheUnitedKingdom,theNetherlands,andGermany,animpressiverangeofleisureprogramsareofferedbynonprofitorganizations,laborunions,andhousingassociations,oftenwithgov-ernmentpartnership.Suchprogramshaveexistedforatleastthreedecades.Inahandfulofcountries,publicpolicyinthenonformaleducationsectoraddressedtheneedforcommunity-basedleisureprogramsmuchearli-er;inSwedenandDenmark,forexample,effortsbeganinthe1940swiththedevelopmentofurbanplayparkandadventureplaygroundprograms.
In
muchoftheworld,
in
marginalcommunitieslackingtheluxuriesofindustrialdevelopment,children
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