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Introduction to Oracle Server

Introduction to Oracle Server

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Published by: api-3701383 on Oct 14, 2008
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Oracle SQL
Jayashree S
Page 1 of 127
CONTENTS
INTRODUCTION TO ORACLE SERVER.............................................................................................. 3
ORACLE SERVER CONCEPTS.................................................................................................................. 4

Topics..................................................................................................................................................... 4 Oracle Server Features.......................................................................................................................... 5 Data Access............................................................................................................................................ 6 The Oracle Server................................................................................................................................... 9 The Database Structures........................................................................................................................ 9 The Data Dictionary............................................................................................................................. 13 An Oracle Instance............................................................................................................................... 13 Communications Software and Net8.................................................................................................... 13 Oracle Memory Structures................................................................................................................... 14 Processes.............................................................................................................................................. 16 Introduction to Rollback Segments....................................................................................................... 20 Data Concurrency and Consistency..................................................................................................... 21 Transactions and Data Concurrency.................................................................................................... 23 Database Security................................................................................................................................. 25 Database Backup and Recovery........................................................................................................... 26 Introduction to Oracle9i Data Guard................................................................................................... 28 Replication............................................................................................................................................ 30 Materialized Views............................................................................................................................... 30 The Object-Relational Model for Database Management.................................................................... 31 Introduction to Partitioning.................................................................................................................. 32 Review Questions.................................................................................................................................. 33

SQL.............................................................................................................................................................. 35
INTRODUCTORY CONCEPTS.................................................................................................................... 36

Topics................................................................................................................................................... 36 Elements of Oracle8i SQL.................................................................................................................... 37 Datatypes.............................................................................................................................................. 39 User-Defined Types.............................................................................................................................. 43 Nulls..................................................................................................................................................... 43 Pseudocolumns..................................................................................................................................... 44

CREATING, ALTERING,AND DROPPING TABLES.................................................................................... 48

Topics................................................................................................................................................... 48 Creating a Table : CREATE TABLE Command................................................................................... 49 Constraints in CREATE TABLE........................................................................................................... 49 Dropping a Table: DROP TABLE........................................................................................................ 53 Altering a table..................................................................................................................................... 54 Sample Tables....................................................................................................................................... 56 Review Questions.................................................................................................................................. 57 Exercises............................................................................................................................................... 57

INDEXING, CLUSTERING,AND SEQUENCES............................................................................................. 59

Topics................................................................................................................................................... 59 Indexes.................................................................................................................................................. 60 Reverse Key Indexes............................................................................................................................. 62 Bitmap Indexes..................................................................................................................................... 62 Index-Organized Tables....................................................................................................................... 64 Clusters................................................................................................................................................. 66 Sequences............................................................................................................................................. 70 Review Questions.................................................................................................................................. 72 Exercises............................................................................................................................................... 73

Oracle SQL
Jayashree S
Page 2 of 127
CHANGING DATA : INSERTING, UPDATING AND DELETING DATA......................................................... 74

Topics................................................................................................................................................... 74 The INSERT Command......................................................................................................................... 75 The UPDATE Command...................................................................................................................... 76 The DELETE Command....................................................................................................................... 77 Exercises............................................................................................................................................... 77

QUERYING TABLES.................................................................................................................................. 78

Topics................................................................................................................................................... 78 The SELECT statement......................................................................................................................... 79 WHERE Clause.................................................................................................................................... 79 SQL Functions...................................................................................................................................... 81 ORDER BY Clause............................................................................................................................... 88 GROUP BY Clause............................................................................................................................... 88 Querying Multiple Tables : Joins......................................................................................................... 89 SET Operators...................................................................................................................................... 90 Nested Queries..................................................................................................................................... 91 Using Special Operators in Sub queries............................................................................................... 91 Exercises............................................................................................................................................... 93

VIEWS....................................................................................................................................................... 96

Topics................................................................................................................................................... 96 What is a View?.................................................................................................................................... 97 How Views are Used............................................................................................................................ 97 Creating Views..................................................................................................................................... 98 Creating Views with Errors................................................................................................................ 101 Replacing Views................................................................................................................................. 101 Using Views........................................................................................................................................ 102 Modifying a Join View........................................................................................................................ 103 Partition Views................................................................................................................................... 106 The ALTER VIEW Command............................................................................................................. 107 Dropping a View................................................................................................................................. 108 Review Questions................................................................................................................................ 108 Exercises............................................................................................................................................. 108

CONTROLLING TRANSACTIONS............................................................................................................. 109

Topics................................................................................................................................................. 109 What are Transaction Control Commands?....................................................................................... 110 The COMMIT Command.................................................................................................................... 110 The ROLLBACK Command................................................................................................................ 110 The SET TRANSACTION Command.................................................................................................. 111 The Auto Commit Feature.................................................................................................................. 112 Review Questions................................................................................................................................ 113

SQL TUNING......................................................................................................................................114

Approaches to SQL Statement Tuning................................................................................................ 114 Using Indexes..................................................................................................................................... 117 Keeping Shared SQL and PL/SQL in the Shared Pool....................................................................... 121 Using EXPLAIN PLAN....................................................................................................................... 123 Creating the Output Table.................................................................................................................. 123 How to Run EXPLAIN PLAN............................................................................................................. 124 Bibliography....................................................................................................................................... 127

Oracle SQL
Jayashree S
Page 3 of 127
INTRODUCTION TO ORACLE SERVER
Oracle Server Concepts

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