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P. 1
Exam 1 Fall 2010

Exam 1 Fall 2010

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- Exam 1 Fall 2010
- Exam 1 Fall 2010

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Psychology Vocab
 –
CH. 1
 –
2
 
Psychology
 –
The study of mind and behavior.
 
Mind
 –
Our private inner experience of perceptions, thoughts, memories, and feelings.
 
Behavior - Observable actions of human beings and nonhuman animals.
 
Nativism
 –
The philosophical view that certain kinds of knowledge are innate or inborn.
 
Philosophical empiricism
 –
The philosophical view that all knowledge is acquired throughexperience.
 
Phrenology
 –
A now defunct theory that specific mental abilities and characteristics, rangingfrom memory to the capacity for happiness, are localized in specific regions of the brain.
 
Physiology
 –
The study of biological processes, especially in the human body.
 
Stimulus
 –
sensory input from the environment
 
Reaction time
 –
the amount of time taken to respond to a specific stimulus.
 
Consciousness -
a person’s subjective experience of the world and the mind.
 
 
Structuralism
 –
the analysis of the basic elements that constitute the mind.
 
Introspection
 –
 
The subjective observation of one’s own
experience.
 
Functionalism
 –
the study of the purpose mental processes serve in enabling people to adapt totheir environment.
 
Natural Selection
 –
 
Charles Darwin’s theory that the features of an organism that help it survive
and reproduce are more likely than other features to be passed on to subsequent generations.
 
Illusions
 –
Errors of perception, memory, or judgment in which subjective experience differsfrom objective reality.
 
Gestalt psychology
 –
a psychological approach that emphasizes that we often perceive thewhole rather than the sum of the parts.
 
Hysteria - a temporary loss of cognitive or motor functions, usually as a result of emotionallyupsetting experiences.
 
Unconscious
 –
the part of the mind that operates outside of conscious awareness but influencesconscious thoughts, feelings, and actions.
 
Psychoanalytic theory
 –
 
Sigmund Freud’s approach to understanding human behavior that
emphasizes the importance of unconscious mental processes in shaping feelings, thoughts, andbehaviors.
 
Psychoanalysis
 –
a therapeutic approach that focuses on brining unconscious material intoconscious awareness to better understand psychological disorders.
 
Humanistic psychology
 –
AN approach to understanding human nature that emphasizes thepositive potential of human beings.
 
Behaviorism
 –
an approach that advocates that psychologists restrict themselves to thescientific study of objectively observable behavior.
 
Response
 –
an action or physiological change elicited by a stimulus.
 
Reinforcement
 –
The consequences of a behavior that determine whether it will be more likelythat the behavior will occur again.
 
 
Cognitive psychology
 –
The scientific study of mental processes, including thought, perception,memory, and reasoning.
 
Behavioral neuroscience
 –
An approach to psychology that links psychological processes toactivities in the nervous system and other bodily processes.
 
Cognitive neuroscience
 –
a field that attempts to understand the links between cognitiveprocesses and brain processes.
 
Evolutionary psychology
 –
a psychological approach that explains mind and behavior in terms of adaptive value of abilities that are preserved over time by natural selection.
 
Social psychology
 –
A subfield of psychology that studies the causes and consequences of interpersonal behavior.
 
Cultural psychology
 –
The study of how cultures reflect and shape the psychological processes of their members.
 
Empiricism
 –
Originally a Greek school of medicine that stressed the importance of observation,and now generally used to describe any attempt to acquire knowledge by observing objects orevents.
 
Method
 –
a set of rules and techniques for observation that allow researchers to avoid theillusions, mistakes, and erroneous conclusions that simple observation can produce.
 
Operational definition
 –
A description of an abstract property in terms of a concrete conditionthat can be measured.
 
Measure
 –
a device that can detect the measurable even to which and operational definitionrefers.
 
Electromyography (EMG)
 –
a device that measures muscle contractions under the surface of a
person’s skin.
 
 
Validity
 –
the characteristic of an observation that allows one to draw accurate inferences fromit.
 
Reliability
 –
the tendency for a measure to produce the same result whenever it is used tomeasure the same thing.
 
Power
 –
the tendency for a measure to produce different results when it is used to measuredifferent things.
 
Case method
 –
a method of gathering scientific knowledge by studying a single individual.
 
Population
 –
the complete collection of participants who might possibly be measured.
 
Sample
 –
the partial collection of people who actually were measured in a study.
 
Demand characteristics
 –
those aspects of an observational setting that cause people to behaveas they think an observer expects them to behave
 
Naturalistic observation
 –
a method of gathering scientific knowledge by unobtrusivelyobserving people in their natural environments.
 
Double blind observation
 –
an observation whose true purpose is hidden from the researcher aswell as from the participant.
 
Correlation
 –
 
the “co
-
relationship” or pattern of covariation between two variables, each of 
which has been measured several times.
 
Variable
 –
a property whose value can vary or change.

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