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P. 1
Exam 1 Fall 2010

Exam 1 Fall 2010

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- Exam 1 Fall 2010
- Exam 1 Fall 2010

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Published by: free testbank on Sep 20, 2011
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Psychology Vocab
CH. 1
The study of mind and behavior.
Our private inner experience of perceptions, thoughts, memories, and feelings.
Behavior - Observable actions of human beings and nonhuman animals.
The philosophical view that certain kinds of knowledge are innate or inborn.
Philosophical empiricism
The philosophical view that all knowledge is acquired throughexperience.
A now defunct theory that specific mental abilities and characteristics, rangingfrom memory to the capacity for happiness, are localized in specific regions of the brain.
The study of biological processes, especially in the human body.
sensory input from the environment
Reaction time
the amount of time taken to respond to a specific stimulus.
Consciousness -
a person’s subjective experience of the world and the mind.
the analysis of the basic elements that constitute the mind.
The subjective observation of one’s own
the study of the purpose mental processes serve in enabling people to adapt totheir environment.
Natural Selection
Charles Darwin’s theory that the features of an organism that help it survive
and reproduce are more likely than other features to be passed on to subsequent generations.
Errors of perception, memory, or judgment in which subjective experience differsfrom objective reality.
Gestalt psychology
a psychological approach that emphasizes that we often perceive thewhole rather than the sum of the parts.
Hysteria - a temporary loss of cognitive or motor functions, usually as a result of emotionallyupsetting experiences.
the part of the mind that operates outside of conscious awareness but influencesconscious thoughts, feelings, and actions.
Psychoanalytic theory
Sigmund Freud’s approach to understanding human behavior that
emphasizes the importance of unconscious mental processes in shaping feelings, thoughts, andbehaviors.
a therapeutic approach that focuses on brining unconscious material intoconscious awareness to better understand psychological disorders.
Humanistic psychology
AN approach to understanding human nature that emphasizes thepositive potential of human beings.
an approach that advocates that psychologists restrict themselves to thescientific study of objectively observable behavior.
an action or physiological change elicited by a stimulus.
The consequences of a behavior that determine whether it will be more likelythat the behavior will occur again.
Cognitive psychology
The scientific study of mental processes, including thought, perception,memory, and reasoning.
Behavioral neuroscience
An approach to psychology that links psychological processes toactivities in the nervous system and other bodily processes.
Cognitive neuroscience
a field that attempts to understand the links between cognitiveprocesses and brain processes.
Evolutionary psychology
a psychological approach that explains mind and behavior in terms of adaptive value of abilities that are preserved over time by natural selection.
Social psychology
A subfield of psychology that studies the causes and consequences of interpersonal behavior.
Cultural psychology
The study of how cultures reflect and shape the psychological processes of their members.
Originally a Greek school of medicine that stressed the importance of observation,and now generally used to describe any attempt to acquire knowledge by observing objects orevents.
a set of rules and techniques for observation that allow researchers to avoid theillusions, mistakes, and erroneous conclusions that simple observation can produce.
Operational definition
A description of an abstract property in terms of a concrete conditionthat can be measured.
a device that can detect the measurable even to which and operational definitionrefers.
Electromyography (EMG)
a device that measures muscle contractions under the surface of a
person’s skin.
the characteristic of an observation that allows one to draw accurate inferences fromit.
the tendency for a measure to produce the same result whenever it is used tomeasure the same thing.
the tendency for a measure to produce different results when it is used to measuredifferent things.
Case method
a method of gathering scientific knowledge by studying a single individual.
the complete collection of participants who might possibly be measured.
the partial collection of people who actually were measured in a study.
Demand characteristics
those aspects of an observational setting that cause people to behaveas they think an observer expects them to behave
Naturalistic observation
a method of gathering scientific knowledge by unobtrusivelyobserving people in their natural environments.
Double blind observation
an observation whose true purpose is hidden from the researcher aswell as from the participant.
the “co
relationship” or pattern of covariation between two variables, each of 
which has been measured several times.
a property whose value can vary or change.

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