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04/21/2012

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BASICS OF PARTICLE SWARM OPTIMIZATION (PSO)
Professor of Mechanical Engineering, Government College of Technology, Coimbatore-13
1. OVERVIEW OF PSO

Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) is a population based stochastic optimizationtechnique developed by Dr.Eberhart and Dr. Kennedy in 1995, inspired by the socialbehavior of bird flocking or fish schooling. PSO shares many similarities withevolutionary computation techniques such as Genetic Algorithms (GA). The system isinitialized with a population of random solutions and searches for optima by updatinggenerations. In PSO, the potential solutions, called particles, fly through the problemspace by following the current optimum particles.
2. THE BASIC PSO ALGORITHM
The various terms used in the PSO algorithm are given below.

= local position of particle

= local fitness value of the particle
best
= local best fitness value in the swarm

= local best position of a particle for local best fitness value
best

= global best fitness value in swarm

= global best position of particle having global best fitness value.C1= self-confidence factor.C2= swarm confidence factor.I = number of iterations.P = total number of iterations

Step 1. Initialize swarm size(a) Set constants c1 and c2.(b) Randomly initialize particle position.(c) Randomly initialize particle velocity.(d) Set counter to 1.Step 2. Optimize(a) Evaluate fitness value

at

(b) If

<
best

then
best

=
,

=

(c) If

<
best

then
best

=

,

=

(d) If stopping condition is satisfied go to 3(e) Update particle velocity
k+1

and position vector
k+1

(f) Increment
. If
< p then increment counter,
= 1(g) Go to 2(a)Step 3. Report results and terminate
3. BASIC STEPS IN PSO
The basic idea behind the PSO algorithm is the social behavior of flocking birds.Birds, when searching for their food in the search area, move as a swarm. Initially oneof the birds finds the food and travels towards it. The other birds follow the first bird oneafter the other and finally all the birds in the swarm reach the food. Technically, thesebirds are called particles within a search space moving towards the destination with aspecific velocity. Similar to the flocking birds these particles move one after the other

towards the best optimum solution in the search space. Finally when the optimumsolution is reached, the iteration ends.The number of particles present within the search space is called swarm size.For a problem with three control factors and one response, the minimum swarm sizeshould be 6. Here in this project, the swarm size is taken to be 10 for the purpose ofsafety. There are three important steps in each of the iterations. They are listed below.1. Initial position of the particles.2. Updated velocity of the particles.3. Updated position of the particles.
3.1 Initial position and velocity
The initial position and velocity of the particles within the search space is foundout by using the formulas given below.
X
0
=X
min
+rand(X
max
-X
min
)
Where,x
0
–
Initial positionx
min

–
Minimum value of a factorx
max

–
Maximum value of a factorrand
–
Random variable, whose value vary randomly between 0 and 1.Thus the algorithm is initialized with a set of particles randomly distributed withinthe search space. Random numbers are generated in order to maintain required swarmsize (say 10). The ten particles are introduced into the search space with randomlyvarying positions. Here the initial velocities of the particles are assumed to be zero.

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