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Silvestri Chapter 12 Ed#548

Silvestri Chapter 12 Ed#548

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Published by: Linda Kuglarz on Oct 14, 2008
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Silvestri, 3/e, ISBN 1-1460-0052-6Chapter 012 (edited file)—"Nutritional Components of Care"10/14/08, Page 1 of 11 1 Figure(s), 0 Table(s), 11 Box(es)
12: Nutritional Components of Care
PRACTICE QUESTIONS
1. A low-sodium diet has been prescribed for a client with hypertension. Following dietteaching, which of the following foods, if selected from the menu by the client, would indicatean understanding of this diet?1. Tomato soup2. Baked turkey3. Chicken gumbo soup4. Boiled shrimpAnswer: 2Rationale: Regular soup (1cup) contains 900 mg of sodium. Fresh shellfish (1 oz) contains 50mg sodium. Poultry (1oz) contains 25 mg sodium.Test-Taking Strategy: Use the process of elimination. Eliminate options 1 and 3 first becausethey are similar. Also, recall that canned foods are high in sodium. From the remaining options,select option 2 over option 4, remembering that shellfish is also high in sodium. Review foodshigh in sodium if you had difficulty with this question.Level of Cognitive Ability: AnalysisClient Needs: Health Promotion and MaintenanceIntegrated Process: Teaching/LearningContent Area:
 
Fundamental SkillsReferences: Nix, S. (2005).
William’ 
 
basic nutrition and diet therapy
(11th ed.). St. Louis:Mosby, pp. 358-359.Peckenpaugh, N. (2003).
 Nutrition essentials and diet therapy
(9th ed.). Philadelphia: W.B.Saunders, p. 98.2. A nurse is providing dietary instructions to a client with gout. The nurse tells the client toavoid which food item?1. Macaroni products2. Corn bread3. Scallops4. ChocolateAnswer: 3Rationale: Scallops should be omitted from the diet of a client who has gout because of the high purine content. The food items identified in options 1, 2, and 4 contain a negligible purinecontent and may be consumed by the client with gout.Test-Taking Strategy: Use the process of elimination and focus on the client’s diagnosis.Recalling the food items that are high in purine will direct you to option 3. Review foods high in purine if you had difficulty with this question.Level of Cognitive Ability: ApplicationClient Needs: Health Promotion and MaintenanceIntegrated Process: Teaching/LearningContent Area: Fundamental SkillsReferences: Linton, A., & Maebius, N. (2003),
 Introduction to medical-surgical nursing 
(3rd
 
Silvestri, 3/e, ISBN 1-1460-0052-6Chapter 012 (edited file)—"Nutritional Components of Care"10/14/08, Page 2 of 11 1 Figure(s), 0 Table(s), 11 Box(es)
ed.). Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders, p. 815. Nix, S. (2005).
Williams’ 
 
basic nutrition and diet therapy
(11th ed.). St. Louis: Mosby, pp. 405-406.3. A clear liquid diet has been prescribed for a client with gastroenteritis. Which item would bemost appropriate to offer to the client?1. Orange juice2. Strained soup3. Fat-free broth4. Soft custardAnswer:
 
3Rationale: A clear liquid diet consists of foods that are relatively transparent. The food items inoptions 1, 2, and 4 would be included in a full liquid diet.Test-Taking Strategy:
 
Remember that a clear liquid diet consists of foods that are relativelytransparent. By the process of elimination you should easily select option 3, because this is theonly food item that is transparent. Review food items allowed on clear liquid and full liquiddiets if you had difficulty with this question.Level of Cognitive Ability: ApplicationClient Needs: Physiological IntegrityIntegrated Process: Nursing Process/ImplementationContent Area: Fundamental SkillsReference:
 
Peckenpaugh, N. (2003).
 Nutrition essentials and diet therapy
(9th ed.).Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders, p. 54.4. A client who has recently been started on enteral feedings begins to complain of abdominalcramping, followed by passage of two liquid stools. A nurse notes that the client has abdominaldistention as well. The nurse reviews the nutritional content on the label of the can to see if itcontains which of the following ingredients?1. Maltose2. Lactose3. Sucrose4. FructoseAnswer: 2Rationale: Several tube feeding formulas contain lactose. A client with an unreported history of lactose intolerance would develop symptoms such as these in response to nutritional therapy withthese formulas. If the client is diagnosed as lactose intolerant, a lactose-free formula should be prescribed by the physician. This will resolve the client's symptoms and promote adequatenutrition for the client.Test-Taking Strategy: Focus on the data in the question. The issue is the ability to associate thesymptoms experienced by the client with the symptoms of lactose intolerance. If you haddifficulty with this question, review the symptoms of lactose intolerance and the nursingconsiderations related to enteral feedings.Level of Cognitive Ability: AnalysisClient Needs: Physiological IntegrityIntegrated Process: Nursing Process/Data CollectionContent Area: Fundamental Skills
 
Silvestri, 3/e, ISBN 1-1460-0052-6Chapter 012 (edited file)—"Nutritional Components of Care"10/14/08, Page 3 of 11 1 Figure(s), 0 Table(s), 11 Box(es)
Reference: Perry, A., & Potter, P. (2002),
Clinical nursing skills and techniques
(5th ed.). St.Louis: Mosby, p. 680.5. A client has been diagnosed with acute gastroenteritis. Which of the following diets wouldthe nurse anticipate would be prescribed for the client?1. High residue2. Low residue3. High carbohydrate4. Low fatAnswer: 2Rationale:
 
A low-residue (low-fiber) diet places less strain on the intestines because this type of diet is easier to digest. This diet is prescribed for clients with inflammatory bowel disease,ileostomy, colostomy, partial obstructions of the intestinal tract, acute gastroenteritis, or diarrhea.Test-Taking Strategy:
 
 Note that the diagnosis in the question refers to an inflammation in thecolon. With this in mind, you should easily be directed to option 2, the diet that would place theleast strain on the intestinal tract. Review the indications for a low-residue diet if you haddifficulty with this question.Level of Cognitive Ability:
 
ComprehensionClient Needs:
 
Physiological IntegrityIntegrated Process:
 
 Nursing Process/PlanningContent Area:
 
Fundamental SkillsReferences:
 
Potter, P., & Perry, A. (2005).
 Fundamentals of nursing 
(6th ed.). St. Louis: Mosby, p. 1298.Peckenpaugh, N. (2003).
 Nutrition essentials and diet therapy
(9th ed.). Philadelphia: W.B.Saunders, p. 74.6. A client with heart disease is instructed regarding a low-fat diet. The nurse determines thatthe client understands the diet if the client states that a food item to avoid is:1. Apples2. Oranges3. Avocado4. CherriesAnswer:
 
3Rationale: Fruits and vegetables, except avocado, olives, and coconut, contain minimal amountsof fat.Test-Taking Strategy: Use the process of elimination and knowledge regarding the fat content of fruits to eliminate options 1 and 2. Recalling that avocado is high in fat content will direct you tooption 3 from the remaining options. Review the fruits high in fat if you had difficulty with thisquestion.Level of Cognitive Ability:
 
AnalysisClient Needs: Health Promotion and MaintenanceIntegrated Process: Teaching/LearningContent Area: Fundamental SkillsReference: Peckenpaugh, N. (2003).
 Nutrition essentials and diet therapy
(9th ed.).Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders, p. 49.

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