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Lecture 10

# Lecture 10

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1
COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS
Lecture # 10
3rdMar 2007
Instructor
WASEEM KHAN
Modulation in Digital Systems
Generally speaking modulation is the process of shifting of
baseband signal to a high frequency band. This isbandpass
modulation.
Digital baseband modulation is the process of converting the
bit-stream into a sequence of baseband symbols or baseband
signal.
M-
arysignal may assume one of M possible symbols
representing log2(M) bits.
A binary signal can represent a single bit while an 8-ary signal
represents 3 bits.
Once the information is converted into a bit-stream, groups of
bits are mapped onto available symbol
-set.
Modulation Process
In Amplitude Shift Keying
carrier is switched between two
(or more) levels according to
the digital data
Keying (OOK)), one and zero
are represented by two
amplitude levelsA1and A0
Amplitude Shift Keying
For BASK,ithpossible symbol is represented as
1
,
0
,
0
),
c os(
)
(
i
T
t
t
A
t
s
s
c
i
i
whereAiis amplitude of the ithsymbol andTsis symbol duration.
Modulated signal consists of a sequence of s0and s1
This expression assumes square pulses. To reduce the utilized
bandwidth, pulses are shaped appropriately. If the transmit pulse is
g(t), then
1
,...,
1
,
0
),
c os(
)
(
M
i
t
A
t
s
c
i
i
1
,...,
1
,
0
),
c os(
)
(
)
(
M
i
t
t
g
A
t
s
c
i
i
2
bits =[1 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 1];
Tb = 0.1;
Ts=0.001;
t=Ts:Ts:length(bits)*Tb;
carrier = cos(2*pi*100*t);
bb_pulse=ones(1,100);
baseband = [];
for i=1:length(bits)
baseband = [baseband bb_pulse*bits(i)];
end
plot(t,baseband);
hold;
bandpass= baseband.*carrier;
pause
plot(t,bandpass,'r');
Frequency Shift Keying (FSK)
InFSK, the instantaneous carrier frequency is switched between
2 or more levels according to the baseband digital data
data bits select a carrier at one of the available frequencies
the data is encoded in the frequency
FSK conveys the data using distinct carrier frequencies to
represent different symbols.
An important property of FSK is that theamplitude of the
modulated wave is constant
Waveform
MathematicalExpression
wherei=2 fi=2( f0+ i f)
andf =fi
fi-1
In BFSK, 2 different frequencies,f0and f1=f0+fare
used to transmit binary information
1
,....
1
,
0
,
0
),
c os(
)
(
M
i
T
t
t
A
t
s
s
i
i
Frequency Shift Keying
b
T
t
t
f
A
t
s
0
)
2
c os(
)
(
0
0
b
T
t
t
f
A
t
s
0
),
2
c os(
)
(
1
1
Phase Shift Keying (PSK)
In PSK, the phase of the carrier signal is switched between 2 (for
BPSK) or more (for MPSK) in response to the digital data.
With PSK the information is contained in the instantaneous phaseof
the modulated carrier.
Usually this phase is imposed and measured with respect to a fixed
carrier of known phaseCoherent PSK.
For binary PSK, phase states of 0oand 180oare used
Waveform:
0
1
0
0
1
0
T
2T
3T
4T
5T
-1
-0.50
0.51
0\u00b0
180\u00b0
0\u00b0
0\u00b0
180\u00b0
3
Analytical expression
whereA = amplitude of the signal
\u00f8= carrier phase
The carrier phase forithpossible symbol can be determined
using
In PSK the carrier phase changes abruptly at the beginningof
each symbol interval while the amplitude remains constant
1
,....,
1
,
0
,
0
)],
(
c os[
)
(
M
i
T
t
t
t
A
t
s
s
i
c
i
M
i
Mi
t
i
,....
1
)
1
(
2
)
(
Phase Shift Keying
For BPSK, we have only two possible phases (usually 0\u00b0and
180\u00b0) to represent one bit
For MPSK, M=2k wherekis the number of bits in a group or
symbol.
In 4
-PSK or QPSK, we can represent 2 bits by a symbol; 8
-PSK
symbol represents three bits and so on.
Phase Shift Keying
Constellation Diagram
QPSK
QPSK
Problem
We want to transmit an analog signal using
8-PSK digital communication system. The
signal is sampled at 1 kHz and digitized using
an 8-bit A/D converter. Calculate symbol rate
and bit rate.
Baseband pulse shaping
In the previous discussion we have considered rectangular pulses.
We have already discussed that rectangular pulses due to sharp
transitions occupy large bandwidth.
Bandwidth of the signal can be reduced by avoiding sharp
transitions.
Baseband pulses are specially designed to reduce bandwidth.
10
20
30
40
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
Time (milliseconds)
0
200
400
600
800
1000
0
0.2
0. 4
0. 6
0. 81
Frequency (Hz)
0
10
20
30
40
0
0.51
1.52
Time (milliseconds)
0
200
400
600
800
1000
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.81
Frequency (Hz)