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Chuong 4 - Dong Hoc Va Xuc Tac (Thay Bung)

Chuong 4 - Dong Hoc Va Xuc Tac (Thay Bung)

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Published by: api-3703605 on Oct 14, 2008
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03/18/2014

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Ch\u01b0\u01a1ng 4. \u0110\u1ed8NG H\u1eccC & X\u00daC T\u00c1C
1.\u0110i\u1ec1u ki\u1ec7n x\u1ea3y ra ph\u1ea3n \u1ee9ng h\u00f3a h\u1ecdc, n\u1ed9i dung n/c c\u1ee7a \u0111\u1ed9ng h\u00f3a h\u1ecdc
a. \u0110i\u1ec1u ki\u1ec7n nhi\u1ec7t \u0111\u1ed9ng h\u1ecdc: \u2206G = \u2206H - T\u2206S < 0. Kh\u1ea3 n\u0103ng
x\u1ea3y ra \u2206H < 0 ( ph\u1ea3n \u1ee9ng t\u1ecfa nhi\u1ec7t )

\u2206S > 0 ( ph\u00e1 v\u1ee1 tr\u1eadt t\u1ef1 ban \u0111\u1ea7u ).
Ph\u1ea3n \u1ee9ng k\u1ebft h\u1ee3p \u2206H > 0, \u2206S < 0
Ph\u1ea3n \u1ee9ng ph\u00e2n ly \u2206H < 0, \u2206S > 0

b. \u0110i\u1ec1u ki\u1ec7n \u0111\u1ed9ng h\u1ecdc : \u2206G < 0 c\u1ea7n nh\u01b0ng ch\u01b0a \u0111\u1ee7 ch\u1ec9 d\u1ef1
\u0111o\u00e1n kh\u1ea3 n\u0103ng x\u1ea3y ra, kh\u00f4ng cho bi\u1ebft v\u1ec1 t\u1ed1c \u0111\u1ed9
C\u1ea7n va tr\u1ea1m \u0111\u1ee7 m\u1ea1nh \u0111\u1ec3 ph\u00e2n t\u1eed c\u00f3 E > ETB c\u1ee7a h\u1ec7 va

ch\u1ea1m \u0111\u1ecbnh h\u01b0\u1edbng
S\u1ef1 c\u00f3 m\u1eb7t ch\u1ea5t th\u1ee9 3 nh\u1eadn E d\u01b0 c\u1ee7a 2 ch\u1ea5t ph\u1ea3n \u1ee9ng
S\u1ef1 c\u00f3 m\u1eb7t c\u1ee7a ch\u1ea5t l\u00e0m t\u0103ng t\u1ed1c \u0111\u1ed9 ph\u1ea3n \u1ee9ng nh\u01b0ng
kh\u00f4ng b\u1ecb ti\u00eau hao trong ph\u1ea3n \u1ee9ng

Ch\u01b0\u01a1ng 4. \u0110\u1ed8NG H\u1eccC & X\u00daC T\u00c1C
c. N\u1ed9i dung nghi\u00ean c\u1ee9u \u0111\u1ed9ng h\u00f3a h\u1ecdc v\u00e0 x\u00fac t\u00e1c :
-Nc quy lu\u1eadt di\u1ec5n bi\u1ebfn ph\u1ea3n \u1ee9ng theo th\u1eddi gian, s\u1ef1
ph\u1ee5 thu\u1ed9c t\u1ed1c \u0111\u1ed9 p/\u01b0 v\u00e0o \u0111k p/\u01b0: To, P, C, ch\u1ea5t x/t

- Nc c\u01a1 ch\u1ebf p/\u01b0, b\u1ea3n ch\u1ea5t vai tr\u00f2 c\u1ee7a ti\u1ec3u ph\u00e2n trung
gian ho\u1ea1t \u0111\u1ed9ng ( ion g\u1ed1c t\u1ef1 do, ph\u1ee9c ko b\u1ec1n..) c\u00e1c
giai \u0111o\u1ea1n v\u00e0 t\u1eadp h\u1ee3p c\u00e1c giai \u0111o\u1ea1n t\u1ea1o n\u00ean p/\u01b0 t\u1ed5ng
c\u1ed9ng

- Nc quan h\u1ec7 gi\u1eefa c\u1ea5u t\u1ea1o ch\u1ea5t v\u00e0 kh\u1ea3 n\u0103ng p/\u01b0 gi\u1eefa
h\u1eb1ng s\u1ed1 t\u1ed1c \u0111\u1ed9 p/\u01b0 v\u00e0 c\u00e1c \u0111\u1eb7c tr\u01b0ng nhi\u1ec7t \u0111\u1ed9ng h\u1ecdc
v\u00e0 c\u1ea5u t\u1ea1o ch\u1ea5t

Ch\u01b0\u01a1ng 4. \u0110\u1ed8NG H\u1eccC & X\u00daC T\u00c1C
X\u00fac t\u00e1c, \u0111\u1ed9ng h\u1ecdc c\u00e1c ph\u1ea3n \u1ee9ng x\u00fac t\u00e1c

\u2022Ch\u1ea5t x\u00fac t\u00e1c : l\u00e0 ch\u1ea5t l\u00e0m bi\u1ebfn \u0111\u1ed5i t\u1ed1c \u0111\u1ed9 p/\u01b0 b\u1eb1ng c\u00e1ch tham gia v\u00e0o c\u00e1c giai \u0111o\u1ea1n p/\u01b0 trung gian, sau p/\u01b0 l\u01b0\u1ee3ng v\u00e0 b\u1ea3n ch\u1ea5t c\u1ee7a ch\u1ea5t x\u00fac t\u00e1c kh\u00f4ng b\u1ecb bi\u1ebfn \u0111\u1ed5i.

\u2022X\u00fac t\u00e1c \u0111\u1ed3ng th\u1ec3 : l\u00e0 s\u1ef1 x\u00fac t\u00e1c x\u1ea3y ra c\u00f9ng pha v\u1edbi c\u00e1c ch\u1ea5t tham gia
p/\u01b0
\u2022X\u00fac t\u00e1c d\u1ecb th\u1ec3 : l\u00e0 s\u1ef1 x\u00fac t\u00e1c x\u1ea3y ra kh\u00e1c pha v\u1edbi c\u00e1c ch\u1ea5t tham gia p/\u01b0
1.X\u00fac t\u00e1c acid \u2013 base :
\u2022\u0110\u1eb7c \u0111i\u1ec3m chung :
M\u00f4 h\u00ecnh ph\u1ea3n \u1ee9ng ko c\u00f3 x\u00fac t\u00e1c:
A + H2O s ph\u1ea9m
PT \u0111\u1ed9ng h\u1ecdc = kC
\u028b
M\u00f4 h\u00ecnh p/\u01b0 c\u00f3 x\u00fac t\u00e1c :
A+ H+
AH+
AH+ + H2O
s ph\u1ea9m
PT \u0111\u1ed9ng h\u1ecdc : = k
\u028b
[AH+] [H2O]

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