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Mobile Protocol

Mobile Protocol

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Network Protocol And Architecture Old Slides
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03/18/2014

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4/2/2003
U.A.Hermann: GSM
1

Network Protocols and
Architectures of Mobile Radio
Systems

An introductory lecture for pre- and
postgraduate students of Electrical
Engineering.

GSM, WAP, GPRS, UMTS
4/2/2003
U.A.Hermann: GSM
2
The Motivation

The GSM Association\u2019s membership
consists of more than 690 second (400+ )
and third generation wireless network
operators and key manufacturers and
suppliers to the wireless industry. Its
members provide digital wireless
services to more than 777.5 million
customers (end November 2002) in over

191 countriestoday \u2013 approximately
71%of the total digital wireless market
today. (source www.gsmworld.org)
4/2/2003
U.A.Hermann: GSM
3
The Motivation (continued)
\u201cGSM with its enhancements (GPRS,HSCSD,WAP,
CAMEL etc.) is the biggest technical system ever
designed by mankind\u201d (source GSM world conference
2000).
In terms of:
\u2022
Mobiles produced per year: about 400 Mio. devices, more
items than watch industry.
\u2022
Technological complexity: more R&D hours than Apollo, ISS, ..
\u2022
Size/Investment: in terms of \u20ac invested in infrastructure.
4/2/2003
U.A.Hermann: GSM
4
The Motivation (continued)
Nice to know:
\u2022

In war thorn countries (like Afghanistan, Yugoslavia) GSM was
the first telecom infrastructure readily and publicly available
within 6 months. (biggest problems: theft of BTSs, charging).

\u2022
It is today cheaper to set up a wireless communication system
from the scratch, than a wire-line system.
\u2022

Wireless systems have been instrumental for the deregulation
of telecom markets: Easy to establish competition between
operators, leading to massive price reductions\u2026

\u2022
Speed of innovation (features, size of terminals, prices etc.)
are unprecedented in history. And it continues \u2026
4/2/2003
U.A.Hermann: GSM
5
1.Global System for
Mobile
Communications
(GSM)
[Mouly, Pautet \u2013 1992]
4/2/2003
U.A.Hermann: GSM
6
1.1. Introduction
Basic Requirements (as defined by CCITT in 1985)
\u2022
Services
\u2013
The system shall be designed such that the mobile stations can
be used in all participating countries.
\u2013
In addition to telephone traffic, the system must allow maximum
flexibility for other types of services, e.g. ISDN related services.
\u2013

The services and facilities offered in PSTN/ISDN and other
public networks should as far as possible be available in the
mobile system. The system shall also offer additional facilities,
taking into account the special nature of mobile
communications.

\u2013

It should be possible for mobile stations belonging to the system
to be used on board ships, as an extension to the land mobile
service. Aeronautical use of GSM mobile stations should be
prohibited.

\u2013

In addition to vehicle-mounted stations, the system shall be capable of providing service for handheld stations and other categories of mobile stations.

4/2/2003
U.A.Hermann: GSM
7
1.1. Introduction
\u2022
Quality of service and security
\u2013

From the subscriber\u2019s point of view, the quality for voice
telephony in the GSM system shall be at least as good as that
achieved by the first generation of 900 MHz analogue systems
over the range of practical operating conditions.

\u2013

The system shall be capable of offering encryption of user
information but any such facility should not have a significant
influence on the costs of those parts of the system used by
mobile subscribers who do not require such facility.

4/2/2003
U.A.Hermann: GSM
8
1.1. Introduction
\u2022
Radio frequency utilisation
\u2013

The system concept to be chosen shall permit a high level of
spectrum efficiency and state-of-the-art subscriber facilities at a
reasonable cost, taking into account both urban and rural areas
and also development of new services.

\u2013
The system shall allow for operation in the entire frequency
band 890 \u2013 915 MHz and 935- 960 MHz.
\u2013
The 900 MHz CEPT mobile communications system must co-
exist with earlier systems in the same frequency band.
\u2022
Cost aspects
\u2013
The system parameters shall be chosen with a view to limit the
costs of the complete system, in particular the mobile units.
4/2/2003
U.A.Hermann: GSM
9
1.1. Introduction
\u2022
Network aspects
\u2013
The identification plan shall be based on the relevant CCITT
Recommendations.
\u2013
The numbering plan shall be based on the relevant CCITT
Recommendations.
\u2013
The system design must permit different charging structures and
rates to be used in different networks.
\u2013

For the interconnection of the mobile switching centres and location registers, an internationally standardised signalling system shall be used.

\u2013
No significant modification of the fixed public network must b
required.
\u2013
The GSM system shall enable implementation of common
coverage PLMNs
\u2013
Protection of signalling information and network control
information must be provided for in the system.
4/2/2003
U.A.Hermann: GSM
10
1.2. Architecture
1.2.1. Overview
1.2.1.1. \u201cThe three description axis\u201d
\u2022
Static view (figure 1.2.-1.) :
\u2013

\u2026 describesfuncti ons, which are fulfilled through the co-
operation of severalm achines. \u201cAfunction is something to fulfil
an activity\u201d

\u2013
Machine(here ) = an assembly of interconnected system
components, physically close to each other, working together to
perform identifiable tasks.
\u2013

\u201cFunction\u201d in technical literature often refers to some abstract
machine. So here its is used closer to the original meaning of the
word.

4/2/2003
U.A.Hermann: GSM
11
1.2.-1 Two dimensional view of a network
Spatial distribution

Increasing
level of
abstraction

Physical grouping
(machine)
Distributed
functional plane
(field of co-
operation)

Physical groupings (machines or entities) are represented by vertical blocks, whereas co-operating functions are grouped in horizontal layers, each one corresponding to a functional domain

4/2/2003
U.A.Hermann: GSM
12
1.2. Architecture
\u2022
Dynamic view :
\u2013
Describes the interworking of the system elements, based on events
and the way they trigger other events.
\u2022
Systematic of description in this lecture (Figure 1.2.-2.) :
1. Description of the GSM system in terms of machines.
2. Description of the functional planes in detail. Role of each machine

in each plane,
3. Description of event sequences (dynamic view)
Additionally a stepwise , top down process of splitting the system into
subsystem is used

\u2022
Architecture of GSM:
\u2013
\u201cCanonical architecture\u201d is described in the ETSI Recommendations
(the Standard)
\u2013
Real architecture: depends on implementational aspects. Design
freedom for manufacturers is intentional !

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