Carcinoma of the cervix is the commonest form of female genital cancer seen worldwide and it is the second commonest cancer in women, it is very nearly as common as breast cancer.
rate in younger cohorts. These age of peak incidence have been identified at about 35years and 50-55years. There is reduced incidence after 55years. CIN occurs in much lower age group.
(ii) Early marriage
(iii)Multiple childbirths (High parity).
(c) Male factors: 2.7 fold increased risk of developing cervical neoplasia for a woman whose husband had previously married a woman with cervical carcinoma.
A history of 15 or more partners is associated with a 7.8% increased risk of the current female partner developing cervical neoplasia (Buckley et al 1981).
Several immunosuppressive agents are present in human seminal plasma. These may influence the development of cervical neoplasia by reducing the local immune response to viral infections or to cells transformed by other agents.
- Human papilloma virus (HPV) types 16, 18 and 33, while types 6, 11,31, 35, 42 and 50 is associated with condylomata acuminata, low-grade CIN and only rarely in invasive tumours.
and the dx. Smoking reduces the number of Langerhan\u2019s cell present in the cervical epithelium which plays a role in local immune surveillance.
concentrations in cervical mucus than in serum from women with CIN.
Another product Nitrosamines, a chemical carcinogen has also been linked
with \u2013 related cancers of the cervix.
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