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Table Of Contents

1.1.BACKGROUND
1.2.RATIONALE FOR COMPARATIVE RISK ASSESSMENT
1.3.OBJECTIVE
1.4.SCOPE OF REPORT
1.5.STRUCTURE
2.3. EMISSIONS AND OTHER BURDENS ON THE ENVIRONMENT
2.4.IMPACTS
2.5.INDICATORS
2.6.BOUNDARIES
2.7. NORMAL OPERATION AND ACCIDENTS
2.8.STANDARDIZATION OF MEASURES
2.9.OTHER IMPACTS
3.1.OVERVIEW
3.1.1.Introduction
3.1.2.Impact pathway (damage function) approach
3.1.3. Summary of impact assessment methodology
3.1.4.Comparison with related approaches
3.2.DEFINITION OF SCOPE
3.2.1. Specification
3.3.INITIAL SCREENING ANALYSIS
3.3.1.Fuel chain activities
3.3.2.Possible impacts of different fuel chains
3.3.3.Identification of priority impact pathways
3.4.CHARACTERIZATION OF FUEL CHAIN AND TECHNOLOGY
3.4.1.Technology and scale of fuel chain activities
3.4.3.Data on receptors and the environment
3.5.1.Important considerations
3.5.2.Changes in concentrations of primary airborne pollutants
3.5.3.Radionuclides
3.5.4.Secondary airborne pollutants
3.5.5.Accidents as a source of impacts
3.5.7. Marine oil spills
3.5.8.Simplified methods
3.5.8.1.Airborne pollutants
3.5.8.2.Waterborne pollutants
3.5.8.3.Radionuclides
3.6.CALCULATION OF EXPECTED IMPACTS
3.6.1.Basic approach for calculating impacts
3.6.1.1.Dose–response functions
3.6.1.2.Thresholds
3.6.1.3.Critical loads approach
3.6.2.Impacts on human populations
3.6.2.1.Types of health impact
3.6.2.2.Effects of thresholds
3.6.3.Impacts on the natural environment
3.6.4.Accidents and risks
3.6.5.Public perceptions of risks
3.6.6. Global climate change
3.6.7.Ozone depletion
3.6.8.Energy security
3.6.8.1.Economic costs during quasi-steady states
3.6.8.2.Energy security and catastrophic events
3.6.9.Impact indicators
3.6.10.Impact parameters
3.6.11.Accounting for future changes
3.8.SYNTHESIS OF RESULTS
4.1.REASONS FOR ESTIMATING ALTERNATIVE IMPACT INDICATORS
4.2.EXPRESSING IMPACTS AS ECONOMIC DAMAGES
4.2.2.Economic valuation
4.3.METHODS FOR MONETIZATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS12
4.3.1.Damage based techniques
4.3.1.1.Market price method
4.3.1.2.Contingent valuation method
4.3.1.3.Hedonic pricing method
4.3.1.4.Travel cost method
4.3.2.Control cost techniques
4.3.2.1.Control cost valuation
4.3.2.2.Mitigation cost valuation
4.3.3.Discussion
4.4.VARIATIONS IN ECONOMIC VALUES
4.4.1.Discounting
4.4.2.Regional variations
4.4.2.1.Site specific effects
4.4.2.2.Differences in economic values
4.5. IDENTIFYING EXTERNALITIES
4.5.1.Meaning of externalities
4.5.2.Estimating externalities
4.7.MULTICRITERIA ANALYSIS13
4.7.2.Steps in multicriteria analysis
4.7.3.Selection of impact indicators
4.7.4.Assessment of impacts
4.7.5.Screening and trade-off assessment
4.7.6.Standardization14
4.7.7.Specification of weights
4.7.7.1.Point allocation
4.7.7.2.Swing weighting
4.7.7.3.Trade-off weighting
4.7.8.Amalgamation
4.9.ISSUES TO CONSIDER WHEN COMPARING INFORMATION
4.9.1.Consistent evaluation
4.9.2.Comparability and transferability of results
4.9.3.Uncertainty
4.9.4.Dominance of selected environmental indicators
4.9.5.Data limitations
4.10.PRESENTATION OF RESULTS
4.12.INTEGRATION INTO POLICY AND DECISION MAKING PROCESSES
5. KEY METHODOLOGICAL ISSUES
5.1.SETTING BOUNDS FOR THE ASSESSMENT
5.1.1.Fuel cycle definition and scope of assessment
5.1.2.Geographical boundaries
5.1.3.Temporal boundaries
5.2.MODELLING AND ANALYTICAL ISSUES
5.2.1.1.Impacts of particulates
5.2.2.Severe accidents and risk
5.2.2.1.Importance of severe accidents
5.2.2.2.Estimating risks
5.2.2.3.Interpretation of information
5.2.3.Aggregation
5.2.4.Valuation and discounting
5.2.4.1.Valuation
5.2.4.2.Discounting
5.2.5.Uncertainty
5.2.5.1.Data quality
5.2.5.2.Estimation of uncertainty
5.3.PRACTICAL AND INHERENT LIMITATIONS
5.3.1.Consistency
5.3.2.Transferability
5.3.3.Comparability
I.1.POTENTIAL IMPACTS OF GLOBAL WARMING
I.1.1.Response of vegetation
I.1.3.Response of agriculture
I.1.4.Response of managed forest and grasslands
I.1.5.Water resources
I.1.6.Marine and coastal environments
I.1.7.Natural landscapes and ecosystems
I.1.8.Human health
I.1.9.Industry and energy
I.1.10.Coastal settlements and structures
I.1.11.Importance of adaptation
I.2.ECONOMIC VALUATION OF IMPACTS OF GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE
I.2.2.Illustrative estimates of damages
I.2.3.Summary of estimates from several studies
I.2.4.Uncertainty in estimates
II.1.CARTEL RENTS AND LONG TERM COST OF OIL IMPORTS
II.1.1.The view that cartel rents are likely to be significant31
II.2.COSTS OF OIL MARKET DISRUPTIONS
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Published by Zakir Ilahi

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Published by: Zakir Ilahi on Sep 22, 2011
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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12/18/2012

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