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Aldehydes Ketones

Aldehydes Ketones



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Published by: api-3705268 on Oct 14, 2008
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Elaine T. Valeza
Pakiedit na lang ang mga paragraphs sa mga end nin pages na dai mabanga para
magayon an pagkaprint
The Aldehydes

An aldehyde is either a functional group consisting of a terminal carbonyl group, or a compound containing a terminal carbonyl group. An aldehyde is either a functional group (additional info and facts about functional group) consisting of a terminal (Station where transport vehicles load or unload passengers or goods) carbonyl group (The bivalent radical CO), or a compound containing a terminal carbonyl group. Aldehydes are named by IUPAC nomenclature (additional info and facts about IUPAC nomenclature) by changing the suffix -e of the parent alkane (A non-aromatic saturated hydrocarbon with the general formula CnH(2n+2)) to -al. Aldehydes can react with HCN (additional info and facts about HCN) to form cyanohydrin (Any organic compound in which the cyano radical -CN and the hydroxyl radical -OH are attached to the same carbon atom) s, R-C(H)(OH)(CN) (wikipedia.org). Aldehydes are formed by partial oxidation of primary alcohols and form carboxylic acids when they are further oxidized. The common name for an aldehyde is often derived from the name of the acid it forms; the IUPAC name is usually derived from the name of the alcohol from which it is formed. Aldehydes are named by IUPAC nomenclature by changing the suffix -e of the parent alkane to \u2013al. Aldehyde condensation polumers are compounds produced by the reaction of formaldehyde with phenol, urea or melanine. Only two aldehydes or ketones are used to a significant degree in industry as determined by the number of tons of the chemicals utilized. The simplest member of the aldehyde group of organic compounds, formaldehyde, or methanal, is a colorless, sharp-smelling gas that dissolves easily in water or alcohol. (The Columbia Encyclopedia, VI Edition. 2001-05).

Production, Effects & Uses of Aldehydes

Aldehydes are unpleasant-smelling liquids widely used in the chemical industry, whereas aromatic aldehydes frequently have pleasant smells and are used widely as flavourings and perfumes. Aldehydes are formed by oxidation of primary alcohols; further oxidation yields carboxylic acids. Low molecular weight aldehydes, e.g., formaldehyde and acetaldehyde, have sharp, unpleasant odors; higher molecular weight aldehydes, e.g., benzaldehyde and furfural, have pleasant, often flowery, odors and are found in the essential oils of certain plants (chemicalland21.com)

Besides the use as an important raw material in the perfume sector, amyl aldehyde can also be used in the production of diamyl phosphorodithioic salts in the leather processing and lubricating oil additive sectors. The research of amyl aldehyde application in pharmaceutical and pesticide sectors has been active in the recent years

and the market application fields are also expanding fast. The sales amount of amyl aldehyde in the European and American markets was 40 000 - 50 000 tons a year in the 1980s (www.highbeam.com).

Deficiency, fatty aldehyde dehydrogenase: Also known as the Sjogren-Larsson syndrome, this is a genetic (inherited) disease usually characterized by a triad of clinical findings consisting of ichthyosis (thickened fish-like skin), spastic paraplegia (spasticity of the legs) and mental retardation. The skin changes in the Sjogren-Larsson syndrome are similar to those in congenital ichthyosiform erythroderma, a genetic disease that results in fish-like, reddened skin. The Sjogren of the Sjorgren-Larsson syndrome was Torsten Sjogren (1896-1974), professor of psychiatry at the celebrated Karolinska Hospital in Stockholm and a pioneer in modern psychiatry and medical genetics (medterms.com).

Treating aldehydes with oxidizing agents such as potassium permanganate, nitric acid, or chromium oxide, will yield a carboxylic acid. Treating aldehydes with Tollens' reagent (Ag O in aqueous ammonia) will convert aldehydes to carboxylic acids without attacking carbon-carbon double bonds (encyclopedia.laborlawtalk.com). Excess dichromate will further oxidise the aldehyde to form a carboxylic acid, so either the aldehyde is distilled out as it forms (if volatile), or milder methods such as PCC oxidation, IBX acid, Dess-Martin periodinane or Swern oxidation are used. Aldehydes can react with water (under acidic or basic conditions) to form hydrates, R- C(H)(OH)(OH), although these are only stable when strong electron withdrawing groups are present, as in chloral hydrate. In old times, aldehydes were sometimes named after the corresponding alcohols, for example "vinous aldehyde" for acetaldehyde (wikipedia.org).

A mutation in the gene encoding for the liver mitochondrial aldehyde exists. There is the role of alcohol dehydrogenase and aldehyde dehydrogenase isozymes in alcohol. Aldehyde tanning is used principally in tanning white, washable leathers, usually sheep or I am aware that aldehyde fixed tissues that are used in the confocal are prone (ezlookfor.com).

Liver cytosolic aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH1) polymorphism and its inheritance. The expression of the cytosolic aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 (Aldh1) gene in lung tumors by northern blotting and immunocytochemical analysis. To investigate the direct role of the human aldehyde dehydrogenase class 1 (ALDH-1) in the resistance to one of these agents, 4-hydroperoxycyclophosphamide (4-HC), an active metabolite of cyclophosphamide, neomycin-selectable plasmid or retroviral constructs harboring the wild-type ALDH-1 complementary DNA in the sense orientation were transfected into K562 leukemic cell lines.(ihop-net.org)

The Ketones

Ketone is either the functional group characterized by a carbonyl group linked to two other carbon atoms or a compound that contains this functional group. Ketone is a class of chemical compounds contain the carbonyl group in which the carbon atom is covalently bonded to an oxygen atom Among the other oxygen-containing compounds, the fact that ketones feature a carbonyl carbon bonded to two carbon atoms distinguishes them from carboxylic acids, aldehydes, esters, and amides. Ketone bodies are three chemicals that are produced as by-products when fatty acids are broken down for energy. Ketone bodies are produced from acetyl-CoA (see ketogenesis) mainly in the mitochondria of liver cells when carbohydrates are so scarce that energy must be obtained from breaking down fatty acids. Ketones are named by appending -one to the stem. There are 2 major kinds of ketones: diisobutyl (valerone) and methyl isobutyl (hexone) (kidsseek.com).

Ketone has the general formula RCOR' where the groups R and R' may be the same or different, or incorporated into a ring (R and R' are alkyl, aryl, or heterocyclic radicals). Ketones may be prepared by several methods, including the oxidation of secondary alcohols and the destructive distillation of certain salts of organic acids (columbia.thefreedictionary.com)

Production, Effects & Uses of Ketones

Ketone bodies are transported from the liver to other tissues, where acetoacetate and beta-hydroxybutyrate can be reconverted to acetyl-CoA to produce energy. Ketones (sometimes called acetone) are chemicals which appear in the blood and urine when body fat is being broken down for energy. Ketones also are formed when not enough food has been eaten to provide the energy the body needs. Morning ketones can be a sign of a low blood sugar during the night followed by rebounding or bouncing back to a normal or high level by morning (med.umich.edu).

In the presence of an acid catalyst the ketone is subjected to so-called keto-enol tautomerism. Acetone, acetoacetate and beta-hydroxybutyrate are ketones (or ketone bodies) generated from carbohydrates, fatty acids and amino acids in humans and most vertebrates. Ketones are elevated in blood after fasting including a night of sleep, and in both blood and urine in starvation, hypoglycemia due to causes other than hyperinsulinism, various inborn errors of metabolism, and ketoacidosis (wikipedia.org). Ketones are elevated in blood and urine in starvation, hypoglycemia due to causes other than hyperinsulinism, various inborn errors of metabolism and ketoacidosis (usually due to diabetes mellitus) (reference.com).

Ketones are important intermediates in the syntheses of organic compounds
such as alkoxides, hydroxyalkynes, imines, alcohols (primary, secondary as well as

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