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When you complete this objective you will be able to…
Be aware of the more severe problems which can occur when drilling, be able to take preventativemeasures to minimize the incidence of these problems and be aware of the measures you can taketo resolve these problems if they occur.
A keyseat will form in any well where there is a severe dogleg in a relatively soft formation. Themagnitude may not be of any concern until such time as the drill collars or accessories becomestuck. The problem of keyseats is not specific to deviated wells; however, these types of wells,where doglegs are deliberately introduced, are much more prone to keyseat formation.
The definition of a dogleg is "a change in the inclination and/or the direction of the “hole”. Fromthis definition, in any directional hole, a dogleg is present beginning at the kick off point. Theseverity of the change in hole curvature (i.e. the dogleg severity) is of importance while drilling,and any abrupt or severe doglegs can be expected to lead to problems.The concept of dogleg severity is useful in grading these angle changes to establish a safe limit.The magnitude is commonly spoken of in terms of degrees change in angle per 100 feet or 30 m of measured hole depth. Values are calculated based on two data points using changes in inclinationand direction using the following formula:DOGLEG SEVERITY = DLS (
[ ] [ ]
φ φ φ φ θ θ
− + −
100/Lwhere:ø = inclination angle
= direction angleL = intervalA safe dogleg severity limit depends on the formations drilled, size of hole, size of components of the drilling assembly, size of casing to be run, etc. Anything above 5
/100’ should be consideredcarefully before drilling ahead, but there have been cases where doglegs of 11
were obtained andno problems occurred in running 13 3/8” casing in 17 ½” hole.Figure 1 illustrates the common conditions where troubles are to be expected with doglegs: Figure2 shows Lubinski's original work.