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Dairy Waste Handbook

Dairy Waste Handbook

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Published by api-3706974
handbook for digestermanure
handbook for digestermanure

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Published by: api-3706974 on Oct 14, 2008
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03/18/2014

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© Environmental Energy Company
1
www.makingenergy.com360-923-2000
Dairy Waste AnaerobicDigestion Handbook
Options for Recovering Beneficial Products From Dairy Manure 
Dennis A. Burke P.E.June 2001
Environmental Energy Company6007 Hill StreetOlympia, WA 98516
 
© Environmental Energy Company
i
www.makingenergy.com360-923-2000
Table Of Contents
Anaerobic Digestion Dairy Waste Handbook 
................................................................................................... 1Introduction......................................................................................................................... 1Dairy Operations................................................................................................................. 3Housing System.............................................................................................................. 3Free Stall Barns........................................................................................................... 3Corrals......................................................................................................................... 4Milk Barn.................................................................................................................... 4Open Lot..................................................................................................................... 5Transport System............................................................................................................ 5Flush Systems............................................................................................................. 6Scrape Systems........................................................................................................... 6Front end Loader......................................................................................................... 6Vacuum Systems......................................................................................................... 7Bedding........................................................................................................................... 7Manure Processing.......................................................................................................... 8Holding Tanks and Chopper Pumps........................................................................... 8Primary Screens.......................................................................................................... 9Gravity Separators .................................................................................................... 10Primary Holding Ponds............................................................................................. 13Secondary Holding Ponds......................................................................................... 14Summary....................................................................................................................... 14Anaerobic Digestion......................................................................................................... 16Bacterial Consortia........................................................................................................ 16Factors Controlling the Conversion of Waste to Gas................................................... 17Waste Characteristics................................................................................................ 17Dilution of Waste.................................................................................................. 18Foreign Materials.................................................................................................. 19Toxic Materials..................................................................................................... 20Nutrients................................................................................................................ 20Temperature.............................................................................................................. 20
 
© Environmental Energy Company
ii
www.makingenergy.com360-923-2000pH.............................................................................................................................. 21Hydraulic Retention Time (HRT)............................................................................. 21Solids Retention Time (SRT).................................................................................... 21Digester Loading (kg / m
3
/ d)................................................................................... 23Food to Microorganism Ratio................................................................................... 23End Product Removal............................................................................................... 24Digester Types.............................................................................................................. 24Processes that are not Appropriate for Digesting Dairy Manure.............................. 25Processes that can be used for Digesting Dairy Manure........................................... 27Anaerobic Lagoons (Very Low Rate)................................................................... 27Completely Mixed Digesters (Low Rate)............................................................. 28Plug Flow Digesters (Low Rate)........................................................................... 30Contact Digesters (High Rate).............................................................................. 31Sequencing Batch Reactors (High Rate)............................................................... 32Contact Stabilization Reactors (High Rate).......................................................... 32Phased Digesters................................................................................................... 33Hybrid Processes................................................................................................... 35Qualitative Analysis of Anaerobic Processes............................................................... 35Solids Concentration Limitations ............................................................................. 35Digestion of the Entire Waste Stream....................................................................... 35Foreign Material Processing..................................................................................... 36Odor Control............................................................................................................. 36Stability, Flexibility, and Reliability......................................................................... 36Nutrient Concentration and Retention...................................................................... 37Additional Substrate Processing............................................................................... 37Energy Production .................................................................................................... 38Conventional Digesters......................................................................................... 38Lagoons................................................................................................................. 40High Rate Anaerobic Reactors.............................................................................. 40Cost of Anaerobic Processes for Dairy Waste.......................................................... 42Alternative Waste Management Systems......................................................................... 44Existing Manure Handling............................................................................................ 44Housing......................................................................................................................... 45Collection...................................................................................................................... 45Treatment...................................................................................................................... 47Post-Treatment.............................................................................................................. 48Final Disposal............................................................................................................... 49Evaluation..................................................................................................................... 49References......................................................................................................................... 51

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