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Strategy Implementation and Project Management

Strategy Implementation and Project Management

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P ergam on
In te r n a tto n a l J o u r n a l o f P r o je c t M a n a g e m e n tV ol. 16, N o. 1, pp. 43-50, 1998
~: 1997 ElsevierScienceLtd and IPM A . A ll rights reserved
P rin ted in G reat B ritain
0 2 6 3 -7 8 6 3 /9 8 $ 1 9 .0 0 + 0 0 0
P I h S 0 2 6 3 -7 8 6 3 (9 7 )0 0 0 1 6 -1
S tr a te g y im p le m e n ta tio n a n d p r o je c t
m anagem ent
T ony G rundy*
C r a n fie ld S c h o o l o f M a n a g e m e n t, C r a n fie ld , B e d J b r d , M K 4 4 O A L , U K
T o
date, strategy
im p lem en ta tio n
a n d
project m anagem ent
h a v e
la r g e ly
d e v e lo p e d
q u ite
s e p a r -
a te ly
a n d
in d e p e n d e n tly .
But there
are m any
o p p o r tu n itie s
for cross-fertU isation
w h ic h
are cur-
r e n tly u n d e r -e x p lo ite d
b o th in th e o r y
a n d in p r a c tic e .
A
n u m b e r o f to o ls
fr o m
s tr a te g ic
m anagem ent,
v a lu e
m anagem ent
a n d
fr o m
o r g a n iz a tio n a l
c h a n g e
c a n
h e im p o r te d
into project m anagem ent
t o
e n r ic h
tr a d itio n a l
te c h n iq u e s
c o n s id e r a b ly .
T h ese
to o ls
a r e p a r tic u la r ly
powerful when
a p p lie d
t o
c o m p le x , m u lti-fu n c tio n a l
p r o je c ts
w h ic h
a r e e n ta ile d
w h e n a tte m p tin g
to tu rn business strategy
in to im p le m e n ta tio n .
These tools can
a ls o
b e
im p o r te d
in to
m ainstream
p r o je c t
m anagem ent
p r a c tic e .
,\u00a9
1 9 9 7
E ls e v ie r
S c ie n c e
L td
a n d
IP M A
O ver the past few
years there has been increasing inter-
est in project m anagem ent as a vehicle for strategy
im -
p le m e n ta tio n .
T h is
in te re s t
h a s
re s u lte d
i n
s ig n ific a n t
a d v a n c e s in :
a )
o u r
u n d e rs ta n d in g
o f
h o w
s tra te g y
c a n
b e
m o r e e ffe c tiv e ly im p le m e n te d ;
b )
o u r
n o tio n
of what
'p ro je c t m a n a g e m e n t'
c a n ,
a n d
should, stand
fo r.
D e a lin g
f i r s t
w ith
( a ) ,
i t
h a s
b e e n
r e c o g n is e d
fo r
m any
y e a r s
th a t
im p le m e n ta tio n
i s
fre q u e n tly
th e
g r a v e y a r d
o f s tra te g y .' B u t a lth o u g h
im p le m e n ta tio n
i s
to u c h e d
o n
b y c o r e te x ts o n
s tra te g ic m a n a g e m e n t (fo r
exam pleZ), im plem entation
ra re ly g a in s th e p ro m in e n c e
w h ic h
i t
d e s e r v e s .
A rg u a b ly
s tra te g ic
m anagem ent
s h o u ld
a c h ie v e
its very own
'p a ra d ig m
s h i f t '3 b y
m ov-
in g
fr o m
a
9 0 :1 0
c o n c e r n
w ith
s tra te g y
fo rm u la tio n
re la tiv e
t o
im p le m e n ta tio n
t o
a t
least a
5 0 :5 0
c o n c e r n
w ith e a c h .
T u rn in g
n e x t to
(b ) th e
ro le
o f p ro je c t m a n a g e m e n t,
p ro je c t
m a n a g e m e n t's
c o r e
c o n c e r n
i s
t o
d e liv e r
a
specific result in
a
p a rtic u la r
tim e
a n d
a t
a
p a rtic u la r
cost. Traditional project m anagem ent4 focuses on
d e li-
v e r a b le s
(o r
'o u tp u ts '),
o n
s c h e d u lin g
a n d
c o -o rd in a t-
in g
t a s k s ,
a n d
o n
m o b ilis in g
r e s o u r c e s .
P rin c ip a lly ,
tra d itio n a l
project m anagem ent
d e a ls
w ith
'h a r d ' ta s k -
b a s e d
business issues, as opposed
t o
'softer', less tangi-
ble factors, except perhaps
fo r d e fin in g th e ro le o f p ro -
je c t m a n a g e r a n d
th e p ro je c t te a m .
T he
'd e s ig n '
th e o ry
o f
s tra te g ic
m anagem ent
p ro -
m o te s
th e
n o tio n
o f
a
n e a t
s tra te g ic
a n a l y s i s - c h o i c e -
im p le m e n ta tio n
p r o c e s s .
H ow ever,
th e
'a lte rn a tiv e '
* T e l. 0 1 2 3 4 7 5 1 1 2 2 .
p r o c e s s - b a s e d
s c h o o l o f s tra te g ic
m anagem ent
s t r e s s e s
th e p rim a c y
o f:
\u2022
Increm ental
m anagem ent
( o v e r
a n d
a b o v e
b o ld e r,
b ig g e r s tra te g ie s . 5
\u2022
C y c le s
o f
d e lib e ra te
a n d
em ergent
c h a n g e - - a s
o p p o s e d
t o
l i n e a r s t r a t e g y d e v e l o p m e n t . 6 '7
\u2022
Im p le m e n ta tio n
a n d
s tra te g ic th in k in g
as inseparable
v s d is c re te
p h a s e s
of strategic
a n a ly s is
a n d
s tra te g ic
a c tio n /
B y
b lu rrin g
th e
b o u n d a rie s
b e tw e e n
s tra te g ic
a n a ly -
s is
a n d
a c tio n
w e
n o w
s e e
a
m uch
m ore
c e n tr a l
ro le
fo r
p ro je c t
m anagem ent
i n
s tra te g y
im p le m e n ta tio n .
T h is
i s
e s p e c ia lly
th e
c a s e
w here
w e
a re
d e a lin g
w ith
m a jo r c ro s s -fu n c tio n a l p ro je c ts lik e T Q M
a n d
B usiness
Process Re-engineering (BPR).
I n c r e a s in g ly ,
p ro je c t
m anagem ent
i s
b e in g
a p p lie d
o u ts id e s its c o r e d o m a in
o f im p ro v in g
th e
" c o m p e titiv e
hardw are'
o f
b u s in e s s e s
t o
th e ir
'c o m p e titiv e
s o f t -
w a r e ', 7 a n d
t o
th e
p r o c e s s
o f
im p le m e n tin g
s tra te g ic
change,s Project m anagem ent
i n
th e
a r e n a
of strategy
im p le m e n ta tio n
n e e d s
th e re fo re
t o
em brace
a
num ber
o f m o re
c o m p le x ,
in te rd e p e n d e n t
a n d
flu id
fa c to rs
i n
o rd e r to
b e g e n u in e ly e ffe c tiv e . M a n a g e r s
are, in m any
c a s e s ,
o n ly
b e g in n in g
t o
le a rn
h o w
t o
p r o c e s s
c h a n g e
is s u e s
e ffe c tiv e ly a n d
t o
tu rn
th e m
in to
p ro je c ts .
T h is
article addresses how
th e y c a n
a c tiv e ly d o
this in a sys-
te m a tic w a y .
I n
th is
a rtic le
th e re fo re
I
o u tlin e
a
num ber
o f
im -
p le m e n ta tio n
a n a ly s is to o ls w h ic h
h a v e
been developed
i n
th e
c o n te x t o f im p le m e n tin g
strategic change. These
to o ls
p ro v id e
a
c o h e r e n t
a n d
r o b u s t
fram ew o rk
fo r
d e a lin g
w ith
s tra te g y
im p le m e n ta tio n
p ro je c ts .
B ut
th e y c a n
a l s o
b e a p p lie d
t o
th e
m ore
m undane,
but no
le s s
im p o rta n t
f i e l d
o f
o p e ra tio n a l
p ro je c ts .
W e
i l l u s -
4 3
S tr a te g y im p le m e n ta tio n a n d p r o je c t m a n a g e m e n t: T G r u n d y
t r a t e
b o th
w ith
r e f e r e n c e
t o
exam ples,
fo r
in s ta n c e
fro m
C e lln e t
( a
U K
c e llu la r
te le c o m m u n ic a tio n s
com -
p a n y ) ,
D o w ty
C o m m u n ic a tio n s
a n d
H e w le tt
P a c k a r d
(U K ).
T o
e x p lo re
h o w
s tra te g y
im p le m e n ta tio n
p r o c e s s e s
c a n
in fo rm
p ro je c t
m anagem ent
( a n d
v ic e
v e r s a )
w e
e x a m in e
th e
im p le m e n ta tio n
fra m e w o rk : e n ric h in g
p ro -
je c t m a n a g e m e n t.
T h is is e x p lo re d
as follow s:
\u2022
P ro je c t d e fin itio n
\u2022
P ro je c t d ia g n o s is
\u2022
P ro je c t p la n n in g
a n d
im p le m e n ta tio n
\u2022
Lessons and
c o n c lu s io n .
T h e im p le m e n ta tio n
fram ework: enriching project
m anagem ent
P r o je c t d e fin itio n
B efo re
w e
lo o k
a t
a n
o v e rv ie w
o f th e
im p le m e n ta tio n
fram ew o rk
w e
s h o u ld
first e x a m in e
th e
i s s u e
o fp r o je c t
d e fin itio n .
N ot
only is this rarely self-evident w ith
o p e r -
a tio n a l
p ro je c ts
b u t
i t
i s
e v e n
h a r d e r
t o
d e fin e
fo r
m ajor strategy
im p le m e n ta tio n
p ro je c ts .
T o
b e g in
w ith , th e s e
s tra te g y -re la te d
p ro je c ts m a y
b e
p o o rly
s c o p e d
o r
tim e
b o u n d e d .
P a ra d o x ic a lly
s tra te g y
im p le m e n ta tio n
p ro je c ts
s h o u ld
a c tu a lly
b e
d e fin e d
w ith
m uch
m o re
rig o u r th a n
u s u a lly
is the
case. B ut at
th e
sam e
tim e
th e re
n e e d s
t o
b e
som e
la titu d e
i n
term s
o f flu id ity
of scope
a n d fo c u s
w ith in
th e
p ro je c t
d e fi-
n itio n .
S tra te g ic
im p le m e n ta tio n
p ro je c ts
n e e d
t o
b e
re fin e d
a n d
s t e e r e d
c o n tin u a lly .
I n
effect these
p ro je c ts
n e e d
t o
b e
g u id e d
m uch
m o re
sensitively tow ards
th e ir
target relative to
th e
m o re
tra d itio n a l,
'fix e d ' n o tio n
o f
a
p ro je c t.
(H ere
o u r
m ind-set
s h o u ld
b e
m o v in g
fro m
th e
S c u d -m is s ile ty p e o f p ro je c t to
the C ruise-m issile.)
J u s t
a s
s tra te g ic
m anagem ent
h a s
h a d
t o
com e
t o
term s
w ith
th is
g re a te r
flu id ity
a n d
a m b ig u ity
s o
m ust
p ro je c t m a n a g e m e n t.
In d e e d , th e
n o tio n s
o f " d e lib e ra te '
a n d
'e m e rg e n t'
s tra te g y
i n
s tra te g ic
m anagem ent
c a n
b e
a p p lie d
i n
a n
e x te n d e d
w ay
t o
s tra te g y
im p le m e n -
ta tio n -a n d
t o
p ro je c t
m a n a g e m e n t. 9
N ot
o n ly
d o
th e s e
term s
a p p ly
t o
p ro je c t
s tra te g y
b u t
a l s o
t o
p ro -
je c t
v a lu e --w h ic h
c a n
b e
p a rtly
d e lib e ra te ,
a n d
p a rtly
e m e rg e n t.
F ig u r e
1
d is p la y s
a n
a n a ly tic a lly
u s e f u l
( a n d
m an-
a g e r-frie n d ly ) a p p ro a c h
t o
u n d e rs ta n d in g
project strat-
egy.7 Project
s tra te g y
m ay
s t a r t
off as
d e lib e ra te
b u t
ra p id ly
m ove
th ro u g h
p h a s e s
o f
b e in g
e m e rg e n t,
s u b -
m e rg e n t,
'e m e r g e n c y '
a n d
p o s s ib ly
e v e n
d e te rg e n t
~
e
r
g
e
n
t
~
F ig u r e1
T h e five form s o f strategy
4 4
m ode.
T h e s e
p h a s e s
o f
th e
s tra te g y
( a n d
e q u a lly
p ro -
je c t life -c y c le ) a re c h a ra c te ris e d
th u s :
\u2022
D e lib e ra te
s tra te g y :
w here
th e
p ro je c t
h a s
w e ll-
d e fin e d
e n d
g o a ls
a n d
a
c le a r
a n d
s p e c ific m e a n s
o f
a c h ie v in g
these goals.
\u2022
E m ergent
s tra te g y :
w here
th e
p ro je c t's
e n d
g o a ls
( a n d
in te rm e d ia te
g o a ls )
a re
n e c e s s a r ily
flu id ,
a n d
a l s o
w here
th e
m eans
o f
a c h ie v in g
th e s e
g o a ls
c a n
c h a n g e
i n
n e w
a n d
som etim es surprising
w ays.
\u2022
Subm ergent
s tra te g y :
w here
th e
p ro je c t
i s
lo s in g
i t s
w ay --its
o rig in a l g o a ls
n o w
s e e m
d is ta n t a n d
u n r e a -
lis a b le ,
a n d
p ro je c t
a c tiv itie s
a re
b e g in n in g
t o
fra g -
m e n t.
\u2022
E m ergency
s tra te g y :
w here
th e
p ro je c t is
tru ly
fra g -
m e n tin g
in to
n e a r - r a n d o m
a c tio n s
a n d
w here
th e
p ro je c t
a s
a
w h o le
a p p e a r s
t o
b e
o v e rta k e n
b y
e v e n ts .
\u2022
D e te rg e n t
s tra te g y :
w here
th e
p ro je c t
i s
r e c o g n is e d
as off-course and
b y
n o w
b e in g
s t e e r e d
b a c k
o n to
i t s
o rig in a l tra c k , o r o n to
a
n e w
tra c k .
T he
's tra te g y
c y c le ' is n o t
in te n d e d
t o
b e
a
determ i-
n is tic
s e r ie s
o f
p h a s e s
d e s tin e d
t o
a lw a y s
g o
a r o u n d
c lo c k w is e .
I n d e e d ,
p ro je c ts
m ay
a lte rn a te
b e tw e e n
d e lib e ra te /e m e rg e n t
m odes
a s
th e y
a re
g u id e d
t o
(a n
o fte n
m o v in g ) ta rg e t.
But m ore
fre q u e n tly a n
em ergent
p h a s e
d e c a y s
in to
subm ergent/em ergency
w hen
th e
p ro je c t
g o e s
w ro n g .
E v e n
th e n
p ro je c ts
m ay
c o n tin u e
t o
fly off-course rather
th a n
b e in g
g r a s p e d
firm ly
o n c e
a g a in
i n
th e
'd e te rg e n t' m o d e .
N ext
w e
ta k e
a
lo o k
a t
th e
d e fin itio n
o f
p ro je c ts ,
p a rtic u la rly
t o
m ap
o u t
th e ir
in te rd e p e n d e n c ie s
w ith
o th e r s tra te g y
im p le m e n ta tio n
program m es. W e
s h o u ld
a l s o
a t
th is
s ta g e
b e
v e r y
e x p lic it in
d e fin in g
th e
s tr a -
te g ic
o b je c tiv e s
o f
p ro je c ts .
W here
th e s e
a re
left fluid,
o r
ta k e n -fo r-g ra n te d ,
th e re
i sc a r te b la n c h e
t o
o rg a n iz -
ational confusion. A lso, it becom es even harder
t o
p e r -
fo rm
m e a n in g fu l
fin a n c ia l
a n a ly s is
o f
th e
p ro je c t
w ith in
a
b u s in e s s
c a s e --p a rtic u la rly
o f th e
a n tic ip a te d
b e n e f its . 8
F ig u r e
2
n o w
e x p lo re s
a
d e c is io n
p a th
fo r
d e c id in g
a t
w hat
le v e l
t o
a n a ly s e
th e
p ro je c t.
W here
th e re
a re
m any
a n d
c o m p le x
in te rd e p e n d e n c ie s b e tw e e n
th e
p ro -
je c t a n d
o th e r p ro je c ts , a n d
w here
th e s e
in te rd e p e n d e n -
cies are
h a r d
t o
c o s t/b e n e fit a n a ly s e
w e
s h o u ld
lo o k
a t
th e
w id e r s e t o f p r o je c tsa s
our desired
u n it o f a n a ly s is .
T h is is s o m e tim e s c a lle d
th e
'strategic project set'.
P ro je c ts
d o
o fte n
h a v e
v a lu e
i n
v irtu e
o f th e ir m e m -
b e r s h ip
of a
g ro u p
o r
set. T his
is s o m e tim e s lik e n e d
t o
a
c o lle c to r's
s e t
o f
s c a r c e
b o n e
c h in a :
e v e n
t o
b r e a k
th e
m ilk jug
w ill h a v e
a
d is p ro p o rtio n a te
effect on
th e
o v e ra ll
v a lu e
o f
th e
s e t.
O b v io u s ly
w hen
d e a lin g
w ith
~
S IM P L E
'
.'._ I I W HATINTER- I I
N O ~ 5 "6 ;E N ~ ';~ C ,E S
[ - - t
c o ,,p ,...I [ ~
-
1
~
~1-1TSkSSESS I--I
I B E N E F IT /C O S T S ?I
I
I U N IT IS
[
J
n
I S T R A T E G IC
N O I.~ P R O J E C T
I SET
F ig u r e2
W hat is the unit of analysis
o rg a n iz a tio n a l
p ro je c ts ,
fe w
p ro je c ts
a re
a c tiv e ly
i r r e -
p la c e a b le . B u t q u ite
o fte n
th e
p o te n tia l v a lu e
o f th e
s e t
is u n d e r m i n e d
sim p ly
b e c a u s e
c e rta in
th in g s
w h ic h
y o u
w o u ld
a n tic ip a te
a s b e in g
there are
a c tu a lly
a b s e n t.
F o r
v e r y
m a jo r
s tra te g ic
im p le m e n ta tio n
p ro -
gram m es
th e re
m ay
b e
s o
m any
in te rd e p e n d e n c ie s
b e tw e e n
p ro je c t c lu s te rs
th a t
w e
g o
u p
a
le v e l m o r e
t o
fin d
th e
a p p ro p ria te
le v e l a t w h ic h
t o
a p p r a is e
th e
p ro -
je c t.
I n
th is
s itu a tio n ,
w e
m ay
h a v e
t o
e v a lu a te
th e
effect as the
business unit strategy
i t s e l f . 8
O ne
k e y
i s s u e
i s
t o
w hat
e x te n t
it is
a p p ro p ria te
t o
ta rg e t
th e
e c o n o m ic
v a lu e
o f
s tra te g y
im p le m e n ta tio n
projects. W e
h o ld
th e
v ie w
that w herever possible, ben-
e f i t s
(how ever
s o f t
a n d
le s s
ta n g ib le )
s h o u ld
b e
t a r -
g e te d --a n d
p re fe ra b ly
i n
e c o n o m ic
(o r
fin a n c ia l)
term s. 7
T h is
d o e s
n o t
m ean
th a t
p ro je c ts
s h o u ld
b e
e x a c tly
e v a lu a te d
( i n
fin a n c ia l
term s)--b u t
o n e
w o u ld
w a n t to
see potential benefits illustrated
fin a n c ia lly .
A lth o u g h
e v a lu a tin g
a t
th e
s tra te g y
o r
program m e
le v e l
m ay
s e e m
t o
c u t
a c r o s s
p re v a ilin g
w is d o m
i n
fin a n c ia l
th e o ry
a b o u t
in c re m e n ta l
c a s h
flow -based
p ro je c t
a n a ly s is ,
th is
a p p a r e n t
c o n flic t
c a n
b e
r e c o g -
n is e d
a n d
a d d r e s s e d .
F o r
e x a m p le , th e
U K
c e llu la r o p -
e ra to r
C e lln e t 7
a p p r a i s e d
i t s
B usiness
P r o c e s s
R e-
e n g in e e rin g
program m e
i n
th e c o n te x t o f:
a )
lin k in g
w ith
o th e r
p la n n e d
s tra te g ic
c h a n g e
program m es:
h e r e
C e lln e t m a p p e d
o u t th e
k e y in te r-
d e p e n d e n c ie s
ra th e r
th a n
s e e in g
B PR
a s
s ta n d -
a lo n e ;
b )
a n a ly s in g
th e
'w ith
in v e s tm e n t'
c a s e :
C e lln e t
ta rg e te d
itself at a
num ber
o f s tre tc h in g , c o m p e titiv e
b re a k th ro u g h s
i n
term s
o f
service, product
tim e-to -
m arket cost, and
fle x ib ility ;
c )
a n a ly s in g
th e
'w ith o u t
in v e s tm e n t'
c a s e :
th is
c o n s is te d
o f 'm o r e
o f th e
p a s t'--C e lln e t
cam e
t o
th e
v ie w
th a t
th is
w o u ld
in e v ita b ly
result in
c o m p e titiv e
e r o s io n .
P ro je c t d e fin itio n
th u s
r a i s e s
e v e n
a t
th is
e a rly
s ta g e
th e
im p o rta n t
i s s u e
o f
h o w
t o
e v a lu a te
( a n d
v a lu e )
p ro je c ts .
P ro je c t
d e fin itio n
m ay
a l s o
le a d
t o
u n b u n d -
lin g
th e
p ro je c t
a c tiv itie s
w ith in
a
s tra te g ic
p ro je c t
s e t
in to
d is c re te
p ro je c ts .
O r
i t
m ay
in v o lv e
re -b u n d lin g
in te rc o n n e c te d
p ro je c ts
to g e th e r
t o
c re a te
a
g re a te r
S tr a te g y im p le m e n ta tio n a n d p r o je c t m a n a g e m e n t." T G r u n d y
C lo s e d
In fo rm a l
F o rm a l
M anagem ent
C o m m u n ic a tio n
C o m m u n lc a b o n -
S ty le
n fe
n g = d
U ntargeted~~
~
/
/
P o ld lc k m g
H = e ra rc h ta l
Im p o rta n t n e w s
S tru c tu re
filte re d o u t
S y m p to m = p o o r
C o m m u m c a t~ o n "
F ig u r e3
R o o t c a u s e a n a ly s is
leverage and
critical m ass, and
th u s a
g re a te r e c o n o m ic
v a lu e .
P ro je c t d e fin itio n
a l s o
re q u ire s
a
re la tiv e ly
in te n s iv e
d ia g n o s is
p r o c e s s
p rio r
t o
d e ta ile d
p la n n in g
a n d
c e r -
ta in ly
p rio r to
c o m m e n c in g
im p le m e n ta tio n .
T h is d ia g -
n o s is
p r o c e s s
a s s e s s e s
th e
real or
u n d e rly in g
n a tu re
o f
th e
o p p o rtu n ity /th re a t
w h ic h
th e
p ro je c t
aim s
a t
addressing, as opposed
t o
its s y m p to m s
o r m o re
s u p e r -
fic ia l d e fin itio n . T h is
ta k e s
u s
in to
th e
c o r e
of our
im -
p le m e n ta tio n
fram ew o rk
(F ig u re 2 ).
P r o je c t d ia g n o s is
P ro je c t d ia g n o s is
c a n
b e
g re a tly
fa c ilita te d
b y
a
sm all
num ber
o f
im p le m e n ta tio n
to o ls .
F irst,
'r o o t - c a u s e '
a n a ly s is
(som etim es
know n
a s
'fish b o n e
a n a ly s is ')
h e lp s
m anagers
t o
u n d e r s t a n d
th e
u n d e rly in g
c a u s e
o f
a
p a rtic u la r
p ro b le m .
(R o o t
c a u s e
a n a ly s is
i s
a
to o l
im p o rte d
fro m
th e
q u a lity
m a n a g e m e n t lite ra tu re .)
A n
e x a m p le
o f
ro o t
c a u s e
a n a ly s is
i s
show n
i n
F ig u r e
3 .
T h is
d e a ls
w ith
a
ty p ic a l
a n a ly s is
o f
com -
m u n ic a tio n -th is
i s
ty p ic a lly
a
w eakness
i n
m any
o r-
g a n iz a tio n s
a n d
o fte n
a
p rim e
c a n d id a te
for a
s tra te g ic
b re a k th ro u g h
p ro je c t.
N o tic e
th e
c o m p le x ity
o f
e v e n
s u r f a c e
ro o t
c a u s e s :
th e s e
w o u ld
n e e d
t o
b e
p u r s u e d
fu rth e r
b a c k
t o
th e ir
u ltim ate
c a u s e
b e n e a th
th is
s t i l l
re la tiv e ly g e n e ra l le v e l o f a n a ly s is .
P r o je c t p la n n in g
a n d im p le m e n ta tio n
F u rth e r
to o ls
fo r
fle s h in g
o u t
p ro je c t
p la n s
in c lu d e
'H ow -H ow '
a n a ly s is a n d
'F r o m - T o '
a n a ly s is . 7
S tra te g ic
T u rn a ro u n d
F ig u r e 4
R e s o lv e
C h a n n e l
C o n flic t
R e fo c u s
I
D is tr ib u tio n
C h a n n e l
R e -tra in
S a le s F o r c e
D ro p
C h a n n e l
" P u s h "
M a rk e tin g
S tra te g y
R e d u c e
C ost B ase
P ro d u c t R a n g e
~
P ro d u c t
S im p lific a tio n
P a rts
S im p lific a tio n
P ro c e s s
P ro c e s s
S im p lific a tio n
A u to m a tio n
R e d u c e
J u s t-in -tim e
W o r k in g C a p ita l
S y s te m s
R e d u c e
F o c u s e d
M a n u fa c tu rin g
~
M a n u fa c tu rin g
S ite s
S tra te g y
H ow -H ow
analysis: strategy im plem entation at Skil Corporation (in the U SA )
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