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ManualCursoAnalisisEspacial

ManualCursoAnalisisEspacial

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Published by: api-3707222 on Oct 14, 2008
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PROYECTO REGI ONAL " ORDENAMI ENTO TERRI TORI AL RURAL SOSTENI BLE"
(Proyecto GCP/ RLA/ 139/ JPN)
Santiago, Chile, Mayo 2003
MANUAL CURSO
AN\u00c1LISIS ESPACIAL
ARCVIEW 8.2
2
Contenido
1 Conceptos B\u00e1sicos:............................................................ 4

1.1 Definici\u00f3n de SIG:.....................................................................................................4 1.2 Qu\u00e9 es una extensi\u00f3n en ArcGis............................................................................4 1.3 Extensi\u00f3n Spatial Analyst........................................................................................4 1.4 Qu\u00e9 es Spatial Analyst?...........................................................................................5 1.5 Otras Extensiones de inter\u00e9s..................................................................................5

1.5.1 Geostatistical Analyst.................................................................... 5
1.5.2 3D Analyst..................................................................................... 6

1.6........................................................................................................................................ 6 Modelo de Datos............................................................................................................... 6 1.7 Modelo de Datos Geogr\u00e1ficos.................................................................................6 1.8 Dato no espacial o Atributo.................................................................................... 7

2 Proceso de Toma de Decisiones........................................ 7
2.1 Modelando el Mundo Real........................................................................................ 8

2.1.1 Modelo de Datos:..........................................................................8 2.1.2 Estructura de Datos....................................................................... 8 2.1.3 Formato de Datos.......................................................................... 8

2.2 Abstracci\u00f3n del Mundo Real....................................................................................9
3 Modelo de Datos Vector y R\u00e1ster....................................... 9

3.1 Incorporaci\u00f3n y almacenamiento de datos:........................................................... 9 3.2 Elementos Geogr\u00e1ficos..........................................................................................10 3.3 Representaci\u00f3n de Vectores:................................................................................12

3.3.1 Puntos..........................................................................................12 3.3.2 L\u00edneas...........................................................................................13 3.3.3 Pol\u00edgonos.....................................................................................13

3.4 Modelo R\u00e1ster..........................................................................................................13
3.5 Ventajas Y Desventajas de Ambos Modelos (Raster v/s Vector)...................14

3.5.1 Ventajas Modelo R\u00e1ster...............................................................14 3.5.2 Ventajas Modelo Vector................................................................14 3.5.3 Desventajas Modelo R\u00e1ster.........................................................14 3.5.4 Desventajas Modelo Vector.........................................................15

3.6 Algunos Ejemplos de Modelos R\u00e1ster que se Ver\u00e1n en Este Curso.............15
3.6.1 Modelo Digital de Terreno (DEM).................................................15
4 El proceso de Interpolaci\u00f3n:.............................................. 17

4.1 Qu\u00e9 es Interpolaci\u00f3n................................................................................................17 4.2 Fuentes de datos para la interpolaci\u00f3n espacial.............................................19 4.3 Patrones de adquisici\u00f3n de datos........................................................................19 4.4 Clasificaci\u00f3n de los m\u00e9todos de interpolaci\u00f3n.................................................20

4.4.1 M\u00e9todos de interpolaci\u00f3n Globales...............................................20
4.4.1.1 M\u00e9todo Kriging............................................................................................21
4.4.1.2 Interpolaci\u00f3n por M\u00e9todo Kriging............................................................... 21
4.4.2 M\u00e9todos de interpolaci\u00f3n locales..................................................23
4.4.2.1 Interpolaci\u00f3n IDW.......................................................................................24
4.4.2.2 Interpolaci\u00f3n por M\u00e9todo Spline................................................................. 25
3
5 Datos Discretos y Continuos............................................. 27

5.1 Datos discretos.........................................................................................................27 5.2 Datos Continuos.......................................................................................................27 5.3 \u00bfDiscreto o continuo?..............................................................................................28

6 Escalas de Medidas.......................................................... 28

6.1 Nominal.....................................................................................................................29 6.2 Ordinal.......................................................................................................................29 6.3 Intervalo....................................................................................................................30 6.4 Raz\u00f3n........................................................................................................................30

7 Resoluci\u00f3n y Escala.......................................................... 30
7.1 P\u00e9rdida de resoluci\u00f3n.............................................................................................31
8 \u00c1lgebra de Mapas............................................................. 32
8.1 Objetos.....................................................................................................................34
8.2 Acciones...................................................................................................................34

8.2.1 Funciones Locales.......................................................................34 8.2.2 Funciones Focales.......................................................................34 8.2.3 Funciones Zonales........................................................................35 8.2.4 Funciones Globales.....................................................................35 8.2.5 Las Funciones de Uso Espec\u00edfico o Aplicaci\u00f3n..............................35 8.3 Calificadores....................................................................................36

9 Expresiones L\u00f3gicas........................................................36

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