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Mass_DOMA_Appeals #5582082

Mass_DOMA_Appeals #5582082

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Published by Equality Case Files
Doc #5582082
Doc #5582082

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Published by: Equality Case Files on Sep 23, 2011
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Nos. 10-2204, 10-2207, and 10-2214IN THE UNITED STATES COURT OF APPEALSFOR THE FIRST CIRCUIT ______________________ COMMONWEALTH OF MASSACHUSETTS,Plaintiff-Appellee, v.UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OFHEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES, et al.,Defendants-Appellants. __________________________________________ DEAN HARA,Plaintiff-Appellee/Cross-Appellant,NANCY GILL, et al.,Plaintiffs-Appellees, v.OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT, et al.,Defendants-Appellants/Cross-Appellees. __________________________________________ ON APPEAL FROM THE UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURTFOR THE DISTRICT OF MASSACHUSETTS __________________________________________ SUPERSEDING BRIEF FOR THE UNITED STATES DEPARTMENTOF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES, ET AL. __________________________________________  TONY WEST 
 Assistant Attorney General 
CARMEN M. ORTIZ 
United States Attorne
ROBERT E. KOPP(202) 514-3311MICHAEL JAY SINGER (202) 514-5432 AUGUST E. FLENTJE(202) 514-3309BENJAMIN S. KINGSLEY (202) 353-8253
 Attorneys, Appellate Staff Civil DivisioU.S. Department of Justic950 Pennsylvania Ave., N.W., Room 7261Washington, D.C. 20530-0001
 ______________________________________________________________________________ 
 ______________________________________________________________________________ 
Case: 10-220
4, 10-2207 10-2214
Page: 1 Date Filed: 09/22/2011 Entry ID: 5582082
 
 TABLE OF CONTENTSPage
STATEMENT OF JURISDICTION ................................................................................. 1STATEMENT OF THE ISSUES ....................................................................................... 2STATUTES AND REGULATIONS ................................................................................. 2STATEMENT OF THE CASE .......................................................................................... 2STATEMENT OF THE FACTS ........................................................................................ 4I. Statutory Background ..................................................................................... 4II. Facts and Prior Proceedings .......................................................................... 5 A.
Gill v . Office of Personnel Management 
................................................... 51. Factual Background ................................................................. 52. Prior Proceedings ................................................................... 11B.
 Massachusetts v. HHS 
.......................................................................... 141. Factual Background ............................................................... 142. Prior Proceedings ................................................................... 20SUMMARY OF ARGUMENT ......................................................................................... 21STANDARD OF REVIEW ............................................................................................... 24 ARGUMENT ........................................................................................................................ 24I. DOMA Violates Equal Protection ............................................................. 24 A. Plaintiffs’ Equal Protection Challenge to DOMA IsSubject to Heightened Scrutiny under SupremeCourt Precedent ................................................................................. 25
Case: 10-2204 Document: 00116264820 Page: 2 Date Filed: 09/22/2011 Entry ID: 5582082
 
1. Gays and Lesbians Are a Suspect or Quasi-Suspect Class under the Relevant FactorsIdentified by the Supreme Court ......................................... 28i. Gays and Lesbians Have BeenSubject to a History of Discrimination ................... 28a. Discrimination by the FederalGovernment .................................................... 30b. Discrimination by State and LocalGovernments .................................................. 33c. Discrimination by Private Parties ................ 37ii. Gays and Lesbians Exhibit ImmutableCharacteristics that Distinguish Themas a Group ................................................................... 39iii. Gays and Lesbians Are Minorities withLimited Political Power ............................................. 41iv. Sexual Orientation Bears No Relation toLegitimate Policy Objectives or Ability to Perform or Contribute to Society ....................... 43B. DOMA Fails Heightened Scrutiny ................................................. 45II. DOMA Violates the Spending Clause by Imposing anUnconstitutional Condition on the Receipt of Federal Funds ............... 53III. DOMA Does Not Violate the Tenth Amendment by Interfering with State Sovereignty .............................................................. 55CONCLUSION .................................................................................................................... 62CERTIFICATE OF COMPLIANCECERTIFICATE OF SERVICE- ii -
Case: 10-2204 Document: 00116264820 Page: 3 Date Filed: 09/22/2011 Entry ID: 5582082

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