Answer. 2 (b)Freud reasoned that human behaviour is like an iceberg; only a small part of which isvisible. However, the part of iceberg, which is not seen, controls the seen part. So is the case of human behaviour. To Freud human is constantly in conflict with the self, the three constructs of human personality are always conflicting. The final outcome, which is the observable behaviour, is the product of this conflict. According to Freud this is the reason why many atimes a human can not verbalize his motivations.Modern psychologists are prepared to recognize the existence of unconscious behaviour, butnot in the sense implicit to Freud. They believe human behaviour is sparked by a motive. Amotive is a felt need. Human behaviour is directed to satisfy these needs or motives. They havefive characteristics. They are(a)the need having the highest strength dominates the human behaviour;(b)a need once satisfied ceases to influence behaviour;(c)when a need is satisfied, it gives rise to a new need;(d)needs are recurrent in nature;(e)needs are ubiquitous.Psychologists do not totally agree on how to classify various human motives. However,some psychologists tend to classify motives according as to whether they are unlearned or learned and whether they are psychologically or physiologically based. The following is theclassification.
The Power Motive – n pow
The leading advocate of this motive was pioneering psychologist Alfred Adler. Power motive essentially is the desire to control others; to direct others’ behaviour. The power attaches to one’s personal competence. In an organization because of his competence a personcomes to acquire power. His say influences the decisions of his superiors. In other words hecomes to acquire extra constitutional powers. Person who has acquired such power must use itfor the good of the organization. It is necessary that he recognizes that the power he has is because of the organization. In other words he be high on social inhibition also.
The Acievement Motive – n ach
David C. McClelland is most closely associated with the study of achievement motive.Out of his extensive research has emerged a clear profile of characteristics of the high achiever.Achievement motivation can be expressed as a desire to performing in terms of a standard of excellence or to be successful in competitive situations. The specific characteristics of a highachiever are a) moderate risk taking b) need for immediate feedback c) satisfaction withaccomplishment and d) preoccupation with the task
Affiliatin Motive – n aff
This motive is indicative of the need belong to and be accepted by the others. Theconsideration of this motive is important in the discussions of group dynamics. The higher theneed for affiliation among the members of the group; the higher is the group cohesiveness.In our discussion of the characteristics of motives we had said that motives areubiquitous. If that is so the questions arises as to how a human satisfies his motive. The conceptof coping behaviour says the human changes his behaviour until he gets what he wants. The behaviour continues on the way leading to need satisfaction.However, human life is not bed of roses. Many a tines situations arise in such a waythat human being does not understand as to what he should do’ or many times his self image is