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Assignment(Organisational Behaviour)

Assignment(Organisational Behaviour)



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Registration No. :-
Shekhar Sharma
Answer 2. (a)
Fundamental Concepts of Organizational Behavior:
Every discipline of study has certain set of fundamental concepts. These concepts are a priori.The do not lend themselves to the question ‘why so’. They are something, which have to beaccepted and not questioned. They are the foundation stones on which the entire edifice of thediscipline is developed. In the discipline of Accountancy the fundamental concept is “for everydebit entry there will be a credit entry”. In the natural sciences the fundamental concept is theconcept of uniformity of nature. The concept states that if a certain phenomenon takes placeunder certain situations in Pune it should take place under the same situations anywhere in theworld.The discipline of Organizational Behavior has fundamental concepts revolving round thenature of people and the nature of the organization.The concepts dealing with the nature of individual are four. They are:i)Individual differences;ii)Whole person;iii)Motivation i.e. caused behavior.iv)Human dignity.
Individual Differences:
Inspite of all the humans being similar every one is different. Every one has a differentgift of the nature; different quality of intelligence, different perception and the different ways or  behaviour. The concept tells that every person is an entity in him. When it comes to human behavior there can not be a prescriptive solution. Every individual is to be treated differentlyeven though two persons may have the same behavioral problems. The concept also tells themanager that he had better be aware of his own stereotypes. A stereotype is a tendency toattribute the traits of a group to an individual because he belongs to the said group. The Jewgenocide can be attributed to this stereotyping. Unfortunately one is not aware as to how thesestereotypes influence his behaviour. This concept, therefore, not only tells that a manager should treat every person as an entity in himself but he should also examine his ownstereotypes.
Whole Person:
In the olden days employees were referred to as ‘hands’, implying that the organizationhires only the hands of man. Nothing can be farther from the truth. An organization hires notonly the hands of an employee but hires complete men with all his pluses and minuses. At thesame since a person performs may roles at the same time the happenings in one role are boundto affect the behaviour in others roles of the person. The concept tells the manager than when itcomes to behavioral problems, he must also take into account the other roles of the person. If the whole person is to be developed then only the benefits will extend beyond the organizationto the entire society. In which the employee lives.
Caused Behaviour (Motivation):
The concept reminds the manager of the law enunciated by Newton that every actionhas an equal and opposite reaction. This means the manager, by his own behaviour, can causeand employee behave in a particular way. If he is respectful to his employees they are bound to be respectful to him not otherwise.
Human Dignity:
This concept is of a different order from the other three because it is more an ethical philosophy than a scientific conclusion. It confirms that people are to be treated differentlyfrom other factors of production. Because they are of a higher order, they want to be treatedwith respect and dignity. When every one, the employee, the manager as the CEO of anorganization are engaged in the same pursuit. The pursuit of enabling their organization toachieve the objections for it has come in existence. Thus they are on the equal footing. Theconcept tells that very person should be respected simply because he happens to be anemployee just as the manager is.
Answer. 2 (b)Freud reasoned that human behaviour is like an iceberg; only a small part of which isvisible. However, the part of iceberg, which is not seen, controls the seen part. So is the case of human behaviour. To Freud human is constantly in conflict with the self, the three constructs of human personality are always conflicting. The final outcome, which is the observable behaviour, is the product of this conflict. According to Freud this is the reason why many atimes a human can not verbalize his motivations.Modern psychologists are prepared to recognize the existence of unconscious behaviour, butnot in the sense implicit to Freud. They believe human behaviour is sparked by a motive. Amotive is a felt need. Human behaviour is directed to satisfy these needs or motives. They havefive characteristics. They are(a)the need having the highest strength dominates the human behaviour;(b)a need once satisfied ceases to influence behaviour;(c)when a need is satisfied, it gives rise to a new need;(d)needs are recurrent in nature;(e)needs are ubiquitous.Psychologists do not totally agree on how to classify various human motives. However,some psychologists tend to classify motives according as to whether they are unlearned or learned and whether they are psychologically or physiologically based. The following is theclassification.
The Power Motive – n pow
The leading advocate of this motive was pioneering psychologist Alfred Adler. Power motive essentially is the desire to control others; to direct othersbehaviour. The power attaches to one’s personal competence. In an organization because of his competence a personcomes to acquire power. His say influences the decisions of his superiors. In other words hecomes to acquire extra constitutional powers. Person who has acquired such power must use itfor the good of the organization. It is necessary that he recognizes that the power he has is because of the organization. In other words he be high on social inhibition also.
The Acievement Motive – n ach
David C. McClelland is most closely associated with the study of achievement motive.Out of his extensive research has emerged a clear profile of characteristics of the high achiever.Achievement motivation can be expressed as a desire to performing in terms of a standard of excellence or to be successful in competitive situations. The specific characteristics of a highachiever are a) moderate risk taking b) need for immediate feedback c) satisfaction withaccomplishment and d) preoccupation with the task 
Affiliatin Motive – n aff 
This motive is indicative of the need belong to and be accepted by the others. Theconsideration of this motive is important in the discussions of group dynamics. The higher theneed for affiliation among the members of the group; the higher is the group cohesiveness.In our discussion of the characteristics of motives we had said that motives areubiquitous. If that is so the questions arises as to how a human satisfies his motive. The conceptof coping behaviour says the human changes his behaviour until he gets what he wants. The behaviour continues on the way leading to need satisfaction.However, human life is not bed of roses. Many a tines situations arise in such a waythat human being does not understand as to what he should do’ or many times his self image is

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