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Polynomial Invariant Theory of the Classical Groups

# Polynomial Invariant Theory of the Classical Groups

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09/24/2011

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Polynomial Invariant Theory of the ClassicalGroups
Quinton WestrichMarch 26, 2006

Abstract
The goal of invariant theory is to ﬁnd all the generators for the algebra of representations of a group that leave the group invariant. Such generatorswill be called
basic invariants
. In particular, we set out to ﬁnd the set of basicinvariants for the classical groups GL(
), O(
n
), and Sp(
n
) for
n
even. Inthe ﬁrst half of the paper we set up relevant deﬁnitions and theorems for oursearch for the set of basic invariants, starting with linear algebraic groups andthen discussing associative algebras. We then state and prove a monumentaltheorem that will allow us to proceed with hope: it says that the set of basic invariants is ﬁnite if
G
is reductive. Finally we state without proof theFirst Fundamental Theorems, which aim to list explicitly the relevant sets of basic invariants, for the classical groups above. We end by commenting onsome applications of invariant theory, on the history of its development, andstating a useful theorem in the appendix whose proof lies beyond the scopeof this work.

Contents
1 Linear Algebraic Groups and their Representations 2
1.1 Linear Algebraic Groups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21.2 Regular Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21.3 Representations of Linear Algebraic Groups . . . . . . . . . . 3
2 Associative Algebras and their Representations 4
2.1 Associative Algebras . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52.2 Representations of Associative Algebras . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
3 The Ring of Polynomial Invariants 64 Polynomial Invariants of the Classical Groups 8
4.1 Polynomial Invariants of GL(
) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84.2 Polynomial Invariants of O(
n
) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104.3 Polynomial Invariants of Sp(
n
) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
5 Afterword 12
5.1 Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125.2 Comments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
A The Hilbert Basis Theorem 12
1