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SDH Pocket Guide - Acterna[1]

SDH Pocket Guide - Acterna[1]

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Published by: api-3709551 on Oct 14, 2008
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05/09/2014

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SDH
Pocket Guiderevised version
 Vol. 1
 
Wavetek Wandel Goltermannis ITU-T sector member.
Pocket Guide to Synchronous Communications SystemsPublisher: Acterna Eningen GmbHPostfach 126272795 Eningen u.A.GermanyE-mail: stephan.schultz@acterna.comhttp://www.acterna.com Author: Stephan Schultz
 
The sun is madeof copper ...
 Anyone making a statement like that these days would likely be con-sidered as quite mad, yet with these words, spoken back in 1861,Johann Philipp Reis began something that has completely changed theworld. This meaningless message, just spoken by Reis into his newinvention, was clearly heard by the receiver. The telephone was born.Despite this, the first usable telephone (A.G. Bell, 1876: Patent forelectrical and magnetic transmission of sounds) was thought of as littlemore than a toy.Today, it would be difficult for us to imagine life without the telephone.World-wide, there are some 750 million telephone connections in useand the number of Internet users has exploded in the last few years.By the year 2000, according to a forecast from Nortel, there will bealmost 475 million Internet users and the number of services providedwill also grow rapidly.Right from the start, network providers have been faced with copingwith a steadily increasing number of users and thus of telephone traffic.This led to the development of various methods and technologies, de-signed on the one hand to meet the market needs and on the otherhand to be as economical as possible. In the field of communicationsengineering, this resulted in the introduction of frequency division multi-plex (FDM) systems which enabled several telephone connections to betransmitted over a single cable. The idea was to modulate each tele-phone channel with a different carrier frequency to shift the signals intodifferent frequency ranges.1

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