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Government 50 World War II Asia

Government 50 World War II Asia

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Published by Alexander Taylor
These documents were used as a supplement originally at Yale University and then in the Topics of International Relations Course at Dartmouth College. The course was taught by Allan C. Stam.
These documents were used as a supplement originally at Yale University and then in the Topics of International Relations Course at Dartmouth College. The course was taught by Allan C. Stam.

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Published by: Alexander Taylor on Sep 23, 2011
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02/05/2012

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War In AsiaI.
 
1941A.
 
December 7 -- Pearl HarborB.
 
FRANKLIN D. ROOSEVELT'S PEARL HARBOR SPEECH (December 8, 1941)1.
 
To the Congress of the United States:a)
 
Yesterday, Dec. 7, 1941 - a date which will live in infamy - the UnitedStates of America was suddenly and deliberately attacked by naval andair forces of the Empire of Japan. The United States was at peace withthat nation and, at the solicitation of Japan, was still in conversationwith the government and its emperor looking toward the maintenanceof peace in the Pacific.b)
 
Indeed, one hour after Japanese air squadrons had commencedbombing in Oahu, the Japanese ambassador to the United States andhis colleagues delivered to the Secretary of State a formal reply to arecent American message. While this reply stated that it seemeduseless to continue the existing diplomatic negotiations, it containedno threat or hint of war or armed attack.c)
 
It will be recorded that the distance of Hawaii from Japan makes itobvious that the attack was deliberately planned many days or evenweeks ago. During the intervening time, the Japanese government hasdeliberately sought to deceive the United States by false statements andexpressions of hope for continued peace.d)
 
The attack yesterday on the Hawaiian islands has caused severedamage to American naval and military forces. Very many Americanlives have been lost. In addition, American ships have been reportedtorpedoed on the high seas between San Francisco and Honolulu.(1)
 
Yesterday, the Japanese government also launched an attack against Malaya.(2)
 
Last night, Japanese forces attacked Hong Kong.(3)
 
Last night, Japanese forces attacked Guam.(4)
 
Last night, Japanese forces attacked the Philippine Islands.(5)
 
Last night, the Japanese attacked Wake Island.(6)
 
This morning, the Japanese attacked Midway Island.e)
 
Japan has, therefore, undertaken a surprise offensive extendingthroughout the Pacific area. The facts of yesterday speak forthemselves. The people of the United States have already formed theiropinions and well understand the implications to the very life andsafety of our nation.f)
 
As commander in chief of the Army and Navy, I have directed that allmeasures be taken for our defense.g)
 
Always will we remember the character of the onslaught against us.h)
 
No matter how long it may take us to overcome this premeditatedinvasion, the American people in their righteous might will winthrough to absolute victory.i)
 
I believe I interpret the will of the Congress and of the people when Iassert that we will not only defend ourselves to the uttermost, but willmake very certain that this form of treachery shall never endanger usagain. j)
 
Hostilities exist. There is no blinking at the fact that that our people,our territory and our interests are in grave danger.k)
 
With confidence in our armed forces - with the unboundingdetermination of our people - we will gain the inevitable triumph - sohelp us God.
 
l)
 
I ask that the Congress declare that since the unprovoked anddastardly attack by Japan on Sunday, Dec. 7, a state of war has existedbetween the United States and the Japanese empire.II.
 
1942A.
 
April -- Doolittle Raid1.
 
Named after the man who led it, this risky bombing run was the first Americanattack on the Japanese mainland. Of little strategic importance, it profoundlyaffected morale in both countries.B.
 
May -- Coral Sea1.
 
The battle at Coral Sea was sparked by the Japanese attempt to push furthersouth to Australia and Port Moresby, New Guinea. The Americans' strategywas greatly aided by United States intelligence, which had broken the Japanesecode and so could decipher their attack plans.2.
 
Although Coral Sea was a naval battle, it was fought entirely in the air -- thetwo fleets never saw each other. The results were somewhat indecisive, withboth the carriers Lexington and Shoho sunk, but Coral Sea was considered aU.S. victory because it halted the Japanese offensive in the south Pacific.C.
 
June – Midway1.
 
The battle for Midway, an atoll at the periphery of the Hawaiian island chain,was a major turning point in the war. The Japanese forces had a numericaladvantage, but American air strength was augmented by Flying Fortressesbased in Hawaii and proved to be the deciding factor. As at Coral Sea,American intelligence code-breakers also played a key role in the United States'victory.2.
 
The United States lost the carrier Yorktown, but all four Japanese heavycarriers in the battle were sunk. These losses brought Japan's naval strengthdown to equal the Americans. Many top Japanese sailors and aviators were alsolost at Midway. Because of this victory, the Americans and their allies wereable to switch from a defensive to an offensive strategy in the Pacific theater.D.
 
July-November – Guadalcanal1.
 
The land, sea, and air battles for the eastern Solomon Islands culminated in thenaval battle of Guadalcanal, another important victory for American forces.2.
 
To protect Australia and begin their march toward Japan, the U.S. easily landedon Guadalcanal Island in July 1942. But Japanese victories in naval battles atSavo Island and Cape Esperance allowed the Axis power to landreinforcements on the islands.3.
 
An indecisive encounter among the Santa Cruz Islands bought the UnitedStates time to position its fleet for the surprise night attack which began theNovember naval battle of Guadalcanal. The Americans scored a decisivevictory over the confused Japanese, who were unable to gather theirreinforcements.4.
 
Several other minor skirmishes were fought at the year's end, but afterGuadalcanal the Japanese retreated from the Solomons. They had sufferedheavy losses, while the U.S. had taken the first step in their island-hoppingstrategy.III.
 
1943A.
 
1943 saw island-hopping continue as the Americans moved toward Japan. Althoughprogress was made, most Allied attention was focused on Europe and Hitler.B.
 
March -- Beginning of the Manhattan ProjectC.
 
Bismarck Sea1.
 
The battle of Bismarck Sea was a U.S. attack on a Japanese convoy bound forNew Guinea with troops and supplies. An American victory, it forced Japan tocurtail both the quantity and schedule of its reinforcements.
 
2.
 
June-August -- Aleutian Islands Japan had occupied the Aleutian islands of Attu and Kiska in June 1942, putting them within 1,000 miles of Alaska andraising American concern about bombing runs to California. In June 1943 theUnited States retook Attu and isolated Kiska to such an extent that the Japanesewere forced to evacuate in August. The west coast of the U.S. was thus securedfrom air attack, but the Aleutians had little strategic significance otherwise.D.
 
November -- Gilbert Islands1.
 
The United States' first island hop into the central Pacific established thepattern that continued for the war's duration. Makin Island was easilyreclaimed from the Japanese, but on Tarawa the defenders survived heavy U.S.bombardments in fortified bunkers. The Americans' amphibious assault landingwas awkward and poorly planned. American losses were far heavier thanprojected before the island was secured.E.
 
Tehran Conference1.
 
the capital of Iran, hosted a conference by The Big Three Allied leaders --Roosevelt, Churchill & Stalin -- during late 1943.2.
 
As US and British forces struggled toward Rome, Roosevelt & Churchillinformed Stalin of the date of the proposed invasion of France in thisconference.3.
 
This was the first time that Stalin met with Roosevelt and Churchill.4.
 
Stalin agreed to launch a simultaneous attack on Germany's eastern front; asecond invasion of France, known as Operation Anvil, would also take place.5.
 
He reaffirmed that the Soviets would join in the fight against Japan afterGermany was defeated, but asserted that the USSR wanted Sakhalin, the KurilIslands, and a year-round Pacific port on the Mainland of Asia.IV.
 
1944A.
 
February -- Marshall Islands1.
 
The next step after the Gilberts were the islands of Kwajalein and Eniwetok.Again the Japanese survived aerial and artillery bombings in their bunkers andoffered fierce resistance when U.S. troops landed. When it became clear theAmericans would prevail, the Japanese resorted to suicidal banzai charges todestroy as many of the enemy as possible.2.
 
The victory in the Marshalls, especially the capture of Engebi air base onEniwetok, gave the Allies control of much of the air space in the centralPacific.B.
 
February-June -- New Guinea1.
 
The New Guinea campaign drove out the Japanese after drawn-out fighting inthe island jungles. It was an important preparatory step for the Allied invasionof the Philippines.C.
 
June -- Philippine Sea1.
 
This Japanese attempt to halt the upcoming invasion of the Marianas Islandsconsisted of air raids against the U.S. navy. But the day of the attack, June 19,was a sunny and cloudless day that enabled the Americans, in the "GreatMarianas Turkey Shoot," to obliterate the incoming planes with minimal Alliedlosses. This victory guaranteed success in the Marianas Islands.D.
 
June-August -- Marianas Islands1.
 
Despite its loss in the Philippine Sea, Japan refused to yield the islands of Saipan, Guam and Tinian. Saipan was taken first, in a bloody attack much likethe scenario at Tarawa in the Gilberts. Guam was more easily claimed in ashort land engagement following heavy artillery bombardment. Tinian was analmost perfect operation, as the Japanese garrison was surprised andoverwhelmed by the Americans' amphibious landing units.

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