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Complex analysis 2

Complex analysis 2

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07/14/2013

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A First Course inComplex Analysis
Version 1.31
Matthias Beck, Gerald Marchesi,Dennis Pixton, Lucas Sabalka
Department of Mathematics Department of Mathematical SciencesSan Francisco State University Binghamton University (SUNY)San Francisco, CA 94132 Binghamton, NY 13902-6000
beck@math.sfsu.edu marchesi@math.binghamton.edudennis@math.binghamton.edusabalka@math.binghamton.edu
http://www.math.binghamton.edu/dennis/complex.pdfhttp://math.sfsu.edu/beck/complex.html
.This book may be freely reproduced and distributed, provided that it is reproduced in its entiretyfrom the most recent version. This book may not be altered in any way, except for changes informat required for printing or other distribution, without the permission of the authors.

2These are the lecture notes of a one-semester undergraduate course which we have taught severaltimes at Binghamton University (SUNY) and San Francisco State University. For many of ourstudents, complex analysis is their ﬁrst rigorous analysis (if not mathematics) class they take,and these notes reﬂect this very much. We tried to rely on as few concepts from real analysis aspossible. In particular, series and sequences are treated “from scratch.” This also has the (maybedisadvantageous) consequence that power series are introduced very late in the course.We thank our students who made many suggestions for and found errors in the text. Specialthanks go to Joshua Palmatier, Collin Bleak and Sharma Pallekonda at Binghamton University(SUNY) for comments after teaching from this book.

Contents
1 Complex Numbers 1
1.0 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.1 Denitions and Algebraic Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.2 From Algebra to Geometry and Back . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31.3 Geometric Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61.4 Elementary Topology of the Plane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81.5 Theorems from Calculus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
2 Dierentiation 15
2.1 First Steps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152.2 Dierentiability and Holomorphicity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172.3 Constant Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 192.4 The CauchyRiemann Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
3 Examples of Functions 26
3.1 M¨obius Transformations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 263.2 Innity and the Cross Ratio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 293.3 Stereographic Projection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 323.4 Exponential and Trigonometric Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 343.5 The Logarithm and Complex Exponentials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
4 Integration 44
4.1 Denition and Basic Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 444.2 Cauchys Theorem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 474.3 Cauchys Integral Formula . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
5 Consequences of Cauchys Theorem 55
5.1 Extensions of Cauchys Formula . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 555.2 Taking Cauchys Formula to the Limit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 575.3 Antiderivatives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 623