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complex analysis 3

# complex analysis 3

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01/07/2013

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Complex Analysis
Math 534 Autumn 2009Donald E. Marshall
If you are not in my class, you are still welcome to view these notes. My only re-quirement is that you send me any typos you observe or suggestions for improvement youmight have. The homeworks are given at the end of these Notes. Additional informationis available from our course web page:http://www.math.washington.edu/
marshall/math534-09.htmlFor example, there is a link to a matlab program for viewing analytic functions. Thereare also links to color pictures (from an older version of the matlab program) along withsome homework questions related to the pictures.These notes are subject to change during the quarter.i

ii

PREFACE
This course is a three quarter graduate level introduction to complex analysis. Thereare four points of view for this subject due primarily to Cauchy, Weierstrass, Riemannand Runge. Cauchy thought of analytic functions in terms of a complex derivative andthrough his famous integral formula. Weierstrass instead stressed the importance of powerseries expansions. Riemann thought of analytic functions as locally rigid mappings fromone domain to another, a more geometric point of view. Runge showed that analyticfunctions are nothing more than limits of rational functions. The seminal modern textin this area was written by Ahlfors, Complex Analysis, which stresses Cauchy’s point of view. One aspect of the ﬁrst year course in complex analysis is that the material hasbeen around so long that some very slick and elegant proofs have been discovered. Thesubject is quite beautiful as a result, but some theorems then may seem mysterious. I’vedecided instead to start with Weierstrass’s point of view for local behavior. Power seriesare elementary and give you many non-trivial functions immediately. In many cases it is alot easier to see why certain theorems are true from this point of view. For example, it isremarkable that a function which has a complex derivative actually has derivatives of allorders. On the other hand, the derivative of a power series is just another power series andhence has derivatives of all orders. Cauchy’s theorem is a more global result concernedwith integrals of analytic functions. Why integrals of the form

1
z
a
dz
are important inCauchy’s theorem is very easy to understand using partial fractions for rational functions.So we will use Runge’s point of view for more global results: analytic functions are simplylimits of rational functions.As a dydactic device we will use the term “analytic” for local power series expansionand “holomorphic” for possessing a continuous complex derivative. We will of course provethat these concepts (and several others) are equivalent eventually, but in the early chaptersthe reader should be alert to the diﬀerent deﬁnitions. The connection between analyticand harmonic functions is deferred until much later in the course. The emphasis in thebeginning is to view analytic functions as behaving like polynomials.iii

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