1. Complex Numbers: A Sketch 2
1.
Complex Numbers: A Sketch
A
complex number
is just a pair,
z
= (
a,b
) of real numbers. We usuallywrite this pair in the form
z
=
a
+
ib
, where the “+” and “
i
” are justdecorations (for now). The number
a
is called the
real part
of
z,
while
b
iscalled the
imaginary part
of
z
. We denote the set of all complex numbersby
C
. Note that we can represent any complex number
z
=
a
+
ib
∈
C
by apoint in the plane.
Examples 1.1.
In class of complex numbers and their locations in the plane
Deﬁnition 1.2.
We deﬁne addition and multiplication of complex numbersas follows:(1) (
a
+
ib
) + (
c
+
id
) = (
a
+
c
) +
i
(
b
+
d
)(2) (
a
+
ib
)(
c
+
id
) = (
ac
−
bd
) +
i
(
ad
+
bc
)In other words, we add complex numbers by adding their real and imaginaryparts, and multiply them by treating
i
as a square root of
−
1.
Notation 1.3.
We use the following shorthand notation:
a
+
i
·
0 =
a
(That is, (
a,
0) =
a
)0 +
ib
=
ib
(That is, (0
,b
) =
ib
)0 +
i
1 =
i
(That is, (0
,
1) =
i
)Then we see that the sum of
a
and
ib
is indeed the single complex number
a
+
ib
. In other words, we can now think of
a
+
ib
as a sum rather than asa wild and crazy way of writing (
a,b
).
Notes 1.4.
(1)
i
2
=
−
1 (Check it and see; remember that
i
is just shorthand for thecomplex number +
i
1)(2) For every complex number
z
, we have 1
·
z
=
z
·
1 =
z
(3) Addition and multiplication of complex numbers obey the same rules(commutativity, associativity, distributive laws, additive identity,multiplicative identity) as the real numbers. We’ll see in a minutethat there are also inverses.
Examples 1.5.
Illustrating the geometry of addition and multiplication:In class.
Deﬁnition 1.6.
The
magnitude
of the complex number
z
=
a
+
ib
is givenby the formula

z

=
a
2
+
b
2
(This is just its distance from the origin) Also, we deﬁne:¯
z
=
a
−
ib,
called the complex conjugate of
z
.