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# group theory

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Published by: jeffrey_uslan on Sep 24, 2011

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11/02/2011

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INTRODUCTION TO GROUP THEORY
LECTURE NOTES BY STEFAN WANER
Contents
1. Complex Numbers: A Sketch 22. Sets, Equivalence Relations and Functions 53. Mathematical Induction and Properties of the Integers 124. Groups 155. Subgroups 196. The Permutation Groups 237. Cosets and Lagranges Theorem 278. Normal Subgroups and Quotient Groups 319. Homomorphisms 3410. Some Structure Theorems 4011. Group Actions 4212. The Sylow Theorems 48
Date
: July 2003.
1

1. Complex Numbers: A Sketch 2
1.
Complex Numbers: A Sketch
A
complex number
is just a pair,
z
= (
a,b
) of real numbers. We usuallywrite this pair in the form
z
=
a
+
ib
, where the “+” and “
i
” are justdecorations (for now). The number
a
is called the
real part
of
z,
while
b
iscalled the
imaginary part
of
z
. We denote the set of all complex numbersby
C
. Note that we can represent any complex number
z
=
a
+
ib
C
by apoint in the plane.
Examples 1.1.
In class of complex numbers and their locations in the plane
Deﬁnition 1.2.
We deﬁne addition and multiplication of complex numbersas follows:(1) (
a
+
ib
) + (
c
+
id
) = (
a
+
c
) +
i
(
b
+
d
)(2) (
a
+
ib
)(
c
+
id
) = (
ac
bd
) +
i
(
+
bc
)In other words, we add complex numbers by adding their real and imaginaryparts, and multiply them by treating
i
as a square root of
1.
Notation 1.3.
We use the following shorthand notation:
a
+
i
·
0 =
a
(That is, (
a,
0) =
a
)0 +
ib
=
ib
(That is, (0
,b
) =
ib
)0 +
i
1 =
i
(That is, (0
,
1) =
i
)Then we see that the sum of
a
and
ib
is indeed the single complex number
a
+
ib
. In other words, we can now think of
a
+
ib
as a sum rather than asa wild and crazy way of writing (
a,b
).
Notes 1.4.
(1)
i
2
=
1 (Check it and see; remember that
i
is just shorthand for thecomplex number +
i
1)(2) For every complex number
z
, we have 1
·
z
=
z
·
1 =
z
(3) Addition and multiplication of complex numbers obey the same rules(commutativity, associativity, distributive laws, additive identity,multiplicative identity) as the real numbers. We’ll see in a minutethat there are also inverses.
Examples 1.5.
Illustrating the geometry of addition and multiplication:In class.
Deﬁnition 1.6.
The
magnitude
of the complex number
z
=
a
+
ib
is givenby the formula
|
z
|
=

a
2
+
b
2
(This is just its distance from the origin) Also, we deﬁne:¯
z
=
a
ib,
called the complex conjugate of
z
.

1. Complex Numbers: A Sketch 3
Examples in classNow we notice that:
z
¯
z
=
|
z
|
2
In other words:
z
·
¯
z
|
z
|
2
= 1But this says that ¯
z/
|
z
|
2
is the multiplicative inverse of
z
. In other words,
z
1
=¯
z
|
z
|
2
Examples in classWe now look at the polar form, and we can write
z
=
r
cos
θ
+
ir
sin
θ
=
r
(cos
θ
+
i
sin
θ
)We also write this as
re
. (Explanation in class)
Notes 1.7.
(1) If
z
=
re
, then
r
=
|
z
|
.(2) the identity [
r
(cos
θ
+
i
sin
θ
)][
s
(cos
φ
+
i
sin
φ
)] =
rs
(cos(
θ
+
φ
) +
i
sin(
θ
+
φ
) translates to
re
+
re
=
re
i
(
θ
+
φ
)
, which is what weexpect from the laws of exponents.(3) Addition and multiplication of complex numbers. Also, this gives usthe key to the geometric meaning of multiplication.(4) If we multiply a complex number by itself repeatedly, we now get:[
r
(cos
θ
+
i
sin
θ
)]
n
=
r
n
(cos
+
i
sin
)
,
which is known as
De Moivr´es formula
. We can use it to ﬁnd
n
throots of any complex number: take the
n
th root of the magnitude,and divide the angle
θ
by
n
. We can also divide
θ
+ 2
π
by
n
to getanother
n
th root, and
θ
+4
π
,
θ
+6
π
, etc. They start repeating whenwe get to
θ
+ 2
. In other words:
There are
n
1
diﬀerent
n
th
roots of any complex number.
Examples 1.8.
A. Find all the 4th roots of
i
.B. Find all the 5th roots of 32
e
iπ/
3
.C. Find all the roots of the equation
z
3
=
i
.If we choose
r
= 1 in De Moivr´es formula, this places us on the unit circle,and we ﬁnd all kinds of
n
th roots of 1.
Deﬁnition 1.9.
The
primitive
n
th
root of unity
is the complex number
ω
=
e
2
πi/n
. Note that all the other
n
th roots of unity are powers of
ω
. Inother words, the
n n
th roots of unity are:1 =
ω
0
,ω,ω
2
,...,ω
n
1
.

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