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group theory 3

group theory 3

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01/05/2013

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Group theory for Maths, Physics and Chemistrystudents
Arjeh CohenRosane UshirobiraJan DraismaOctober 18, 2007
 
2
 
Contents
1 Introduction 5
1.1 Symmetry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51.2 Basic notions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
2 Permutation Groups 17
2.1 Cosets and Lagrange . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172.2 Quotient groups and the homomorphism theorem . . . . . . . . . 182.3 Loyds puzzle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 222.4 Action of groups on sets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
3 Symmetry Groups in Euclidean Space 33
3.1 Motivation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 333.2 Isometries of 
n
-space . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 353.3 The Finite Subgroups of O(2
,
R
) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 403.4 The Finite Subgroups of O(3
,
R
) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
4 Representation Theory 51
4.1 Linear representations of groups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 514.2 Decomposing Displacements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
5 Character Tables 63
5.1 Characters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 635.2 Orthogonality of irreducible characters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 645.3 Character tables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 725.4 Application: symmetry of vibrations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 775.5 Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80
6 Some compact Lie groups and their representations 81
6.1 Some examples of Lie groups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 816.2 Representation theory of compact Lie groups . . . . . . . . . . . 846.3 The 2-dimensional unitary group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 866.4 The 3-dimensional orthogonal group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 883

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