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Topology 2

# Topology 2

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09/24/2011

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Introduction to General Topology
An Introductory Course[Wahlpﬂichtbereich][Qualiﬁzierungsmodul]
Karl Heinrich HofmannSummer 2005

Chapter 1Topological spaces
Topological spaces generalize metric spaces. One uses metric spaces in analysisto work with continuous functions on what appears to be the “right” level of generality. But even in this context one notices that many important concepts,such as the continuity of functions between metric spaces itself, can be expressedin the language of
open sets
alone. This observation has caused mathematicians,ﬁrst
Felix Hausdorff
, next
Paul Alexandroff
and
Heinz Hopf
, to use theidea of
open sets
as the basis for a general theory of continuity in an axiomaticapproach. In fact
Hausdorff
’s deﬁnition was based on the concept of systems of
neighborhoods
for each point.We shall begin by deﬁning topological spaces and continuous functions in bothways and by showing that they are equivalent.The
objects
of our study are the “spaces”; the
transformations
between them arethe “continuous functions”. One should always treat them in a parallel approach.This is what has become known as “category theoretical” procedure, but we shallnot be very formal in this regard.
1. Topological spaces and continuous functions
Some basic set theoretical notation
Consider a set
and a subset
A
. We deﬁne(1)
χ
A
(
x
) =
1 if
x
A
,0 if
x
\
A
and call the function
χ
A
the
characteristic function
of the subset
A
of
. We let
P
(
) denote the set
{
A
:
A
}
of all subsets of
an call it the
power set
of
. The name derives from a natural bijection
A
χ
A
:
P
(
)
→ {
0
,
1
}
X
.
The two element set
{
0
,
1
}
is often abbreviated by
2
and thus
2
X
=
{
0
,
1
}
X
.A power set is never empty, because
∅ ∈
P
(
) and
P
(
) for any set
.The set theoretical operations of arbitrary unions and intersections are welldeﬁned on
P
(
). If
A
=
A
j
:
j
,
A
j
is a family of subsets of
, then

2
1. Topological spaces
A
=
j
A
j
def
=
{
x
: (
j
)
x
A
j
}
,
(2)
A
=
j
A
j
def
=
{
x
: (
j
)
x
A
j
}
.
(3)
Exercise E1.1.
(i) Verify that the function
A
χ
A
deﬁned in (1) above is abijection by exhibiting its inverse function
2
X
P
(
).(ii) Let
A
denote the empty set of subsets of a set
. Compute
A
and
A
,using (2) and (3).[Hint. Regarding (i), in very explicit terms, we have for instance
A
=
{
x
:(
A
)(
A
∈ A
)
(
x
A
)
}
. So what?](iii) Verify the following distributive law for a subset
A
and a family
{
A
j
:
j
}
of subsets
A
j
of a set
:(4)
A
j
A
j
=
j
(
A
A
j
)
.
In order to understand all concepts accurately, we should recall what the dif-ference is between a subset
of a set
and a family (
s
j
:
j
) of elementsof
. A subset
is a set (we assume familiarity with
that
concept) suchthat
s
implies
s
. A family (
s
j
:
j
) of elements of
is a function
j
s
j
:
. If I have a family (
s
j
:
j
) then I have a set, namely
{
s
j
:
j
}
, the image of the function. In fact for many purposes of set theorya family is even denoted by
{
s
j
:
j
}
which, strictly speaking, is not exact.Conversely, if I have a subset
of
then I can form a family (
s
:
s
) of elements of
, namely the inclusion function
s
s
:
. Notice that we canhave an empty family (
s
j
:
j
), namely the empty function
:
, whosegraph is the empty set, a subset of
×
=
. (What we cannot have is a function
→ ∅
for for
=
! Check the deﬁnition of a function!)
A
function
:
X
is a triple
= (
G,X,Y
) of sets such that
G
X
×
satisfying thefollowing conditions:(i) (
x
)
x
X
(
y
)(
y
and (
x,y
)
G
).(ii) (
x,y,y
)
(
x,y
)
G
and (
x,y
)
G
y
=
y
x,y
)
G
we write
y
=
(
x
). The set
G
is called the graph of the function
.