2
Notation
There are many different notations for scalars, vectors and tensors (andthey’re often mixed and matched); however, a few of the common ones are
scalars
scalars are usually shown in math italics e.g.
f
,
g
,
t
...
vectors
come in more ﬂavours. when typeset they’re usually boldroman characters e.g.
V
, or the unit vectors
i
,
j
,
k
. When hand written they usually havea line underneath them. Vectors can also be written in component form as
v
=
v
x
i
+
v
y
j
+
v
z
k
or in index notation
v
=
v
i
ˆ
e
i
where
ˆ
e
i
is anotherrepresentation of the unit vectors.
tensors
(actually second rank tensors) Typeset in sansserif font
D
(or often justa bold
σ
), handwritten with two underbars, or by component
D
ij
. 2nd rank tensors are also conveniently represented by matrices.
Deﬁnitions of basic operationsvector dot producta
·
b
=
a
i
b
i
=

a

b

cos
θ
(A.1.1)is a scalar that records the amount of vector
a
that lies in the direction of vector
b
(and vice versa).
θ
is the smallest angle between the two vectors.
vector cross product c
=
a
×
b
is a vector that is perpendicular to the planespanned by vectors
a
and
b
. The direction that
c
points in is determined bythe right hand rule. Note
a
×
b
=
−
b
×
a
. The cross product is most easilycalculated as the determinant of the matrix
c
=
i j k
a
x
a
y
a
z
b
x
b
y
b
z
(A.1.2)or
c
= (
a
y
b
z
−
a
z
b
y
)
i
−
(
a
x
b
z
−
a
z
b
x
)
j
+ (
a
x
b
y
−
a
y
b
x
)
k
(A.1.3)or in index notation as
c
i
=
ijk
a
j
b
k
where
ijk
is the horrid permutationsymbol.
tensor vector dot product
is a vector formed by matrix multiplication of a tensorand a vector
c
=
D
·
a
. In the case of stress, the force acting on a planewith normal vector
n
is simply
f
=
σ
·
n
. Each component of the vector ismost easily calculated in index notation with
c
i
=
D
ij
a
j
with summationimplied over repeated indices (i.e.
c
1
=
D
11
a
1
+
D
12
a
2
+
D
13
a
3
and so onfor
i
= 2
,
3
.