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statmech1

# statmech1

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11/06/2012

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Assignment # 1: Page 1
Problem 1
:
diatomic molecules are stuck on a metal surface of square symmetry.Each molecule can either lie ﬂat on the surface, in which case it must be aligned in one of two directions,
x
and
y
, or it can stand up along the
z
direction. There is an energy cost of
>
0 associated with a molecule standing up, and zero energy for molecules lying ﬂat alongthe
x
or
y
directions.(a) How many microstates have the smallest value of energy? What is the largest microstateenergy?(b) For
microcanonical
macrostates of energy
, calculate the number of states Ω(
E,
),and the entropy
(
E,
).(c) Calculate the heat capacity
(
) and sketch it.(d) What is the probability that a speciﬁc molecule is standing up?(e) What is the largest probable value of the internal energy at any positive temperature?
Problem 2
Curie susceptibility
: consider
non-interacting quantized spins in a magnetic ﬁeld
 B
=
B
ˆ
z
,and at a temperature
. The work done by the ﬁeld is given by
BM
z
, with a magnetization
z
=
µ
i
=1
m
i
. For each spin,
m
i
takes only the 2
s
+ 1 values
s,
s
+ 1
,...,s
1
,s
.(a) Calculate the Gibbs partition function
(
T,B
). (Note that the ensemble correspondingto the macrostate (
T,B
) includes magnetic work.)(b) Calculate the Gibbs free energy
G
(
T,B
), and show that for small B,
G
(
B
) =
G
(0)
Nµ
2
s
(
s
+ 1)
B
2
6
k
B
+
O
(
B
4
)
.
(c) Calculate the zero ﬁeld susceptibility

Assignment # 1: Page 2
χ
=
∂M
z
∂B
B
=0
and show that it satisﬁes
Curie’s law
χ
=
c.
(d) Show that
B
=
cB
2
2
, where
B
and
are heat capacities at constant
B
and
,respectively.
Problem 3
One-dimensional polymer
: consider a polymer formed by connecting
disc-shaped moleculesinto a one-dimensional chain. Each molecule can align along either its long axis (of length2
a
) or its short axis (length
a
). The energy of the monomer aligned along its shorter axisis higher by
, that is, the total energy is
H
=
U
, where
is the number of monomersstanding up.(a) Calculate the partition function,
(
T,
), of the polymer.(b) Find the relative probabilities for a monomer to be aligned along its short or long axis.(c) Calculate the average length,
L
(
T,
)
, of the polymer.(d) Obtain the variance,
L
(
T,
)
2
c
.(e) What does the central limit theorem say about the probability distribution for the length
L
(
T,
).
Problem 4
Polar rods
: consider rod-shaped molecules with moment of inertia
, and a dipole moment
µ
. The contribution of the rotational degrees of freedom to the Hamiltonian is given by