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What is meant by Inams in Karnataka

What is meant by Inams in Karnataka

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A Inam is a grant by Government for the per¬sonal benefit of an individual or individuals or for religious, charitable or other purposes, or for service rendered to the State or to a Village commu¬nity. Lands so granted are held free of assessment, or subject to a Jodi (light assessment) or quit-rent.
A Inam is a grant by Government for the per¬sonal benefit of an individual or individuals or for religious, charitable or other purposes, or for service rendered to the State or to a Village commu¬nity. Lands so granted are held free of assessment, or subject to a Jodi (light assessment) or quit-rent.

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 (EXTRACT FROM MYSORE MUZRAI MANUAL)A Inam is a grant by Government for the personal benefit of an individual orindividuals or for religious, charitable or other purposes, or for servicerendered to the State or to a Village community. Lands so granted are heldfree of assessment, or subject to a Jodi (light assessment) or quit-rent.According to the Land Revenue Code the term "inam" or "alienation of land"means the assignment, in favour of an individual or individuals or of areligious or a charitable institution, wholly or partially, of the right of Government to levy land revenue .
The origin of inams dates prior to 1800 and dates from antiquity. Under theorders of Dewan Purnaiya, a survey "Akshaya Paimayish", as it was thentermed, the survey having been instituted in the Hindu year "Akshaya" wasmade of all inam lands. This survey was neither accurate nor perfect; still theresults were of some use for purposes of inam settlement. Further, it was not a survey in terms of "acres and guntas" as of now, but of "Bijavari".Purnaiya's inam accounts were prepared "Isamwar" and "Talukwar", but not for the village, and they constitute the "original Jari Inamti accounts", or arecord of valid grant, confirmed by due authority. Purnaiya is said to haverestored the inams which had been resumed by Mohammedan. Rulers, not onthe original terms, but with the imposition of a substantial "Jodi". He alsogranted fresh inams, without exceeding the total old recorded value of theinams. During his settlement, Purnaiya also dealt with excesses discovered inall personal inams over and above three Kanthirai Pagodas in value. The up-shot of his settlement appears, roughly, to have been the confirmation of inams of the value of about eight lakhs of rupees, with a Jodi however, of 
about three lakhs.In earlier days the assessment was being levied both in kind and cash, on theprinciple that the ruling power was entitled to a certain proportion of theproduce of every acre of land belonging to the State.A number of inams were also created during the period 1811 to 1831 duringthe reign Maharaja Krishnaraja Wodeyar III, and large alienations were
made, in addition to which a good many villages were granted onKayamgutta or permanent tenure. Lands, with a rough assessment valuationof 3 ½ lakhs of rupees, were thus granted as inams, the jodi imposed thereonbeing only about half a lakh.
The grants made by the British Commission since 1831, which may be calledthe third epoch in inam history, were few, and were for special purposes,such as, the maintenance of topes, tanks and avenue trees, and the upkeepChattrams. The Jodi imposed was also substantial.In 1841, certain inams unsupported by documentary evidence, but recognised in practice, were newly registered by the Revenue Authorities inaccounts, called "Chor", "Swalpa", "Chora Manya". These accounts were lateron accepted by the Inam Department. In 1847 however, during the
preparation of the "Aval Number" accounts, some unauthorizedly enjoyed
inams were resumed.
The question of an inam settlement of Mysore was mooted in 1863; but theInam Commission was not organised until 1864. This Commission wascomposed of an Inam Commissioner, a Special Assistant, and three Assistantsall of whom were invested with judicial powers which were howeverwithdrawn, when the department was reorganised in 1872.
.With the approval of the Government of India, a set of Rules were issued in1868, for the guidance of the Inam Commission, in the investigation andsettlement of inams. These rules are based on the theory of the reversionaryright of Government and the governing principle adopted to test the validityof inams was that only such of them were to be confirmed, as satisfied eitherof the following two conditions.(i) The competence of the grantor irrespective of the duration of the inam,whether 50 or less than 50 years old.(ii) The duration of the inam for 50 years or more irrespective of thecompetence of the grantor.
The following are the various classes of inamsI. Personal inams.
(a) Inams held for personal benefit. (b) Bramhadayainams, including Agrahar inams.II. Religious (Devadaya) and charitable (Dharmadaya) inams.III. Kodagi inams.IV. Service inams.
(a) Miscellaneous service inams such as Deshpande,
Desh-mukhi, Deshkulkarni,
(b) Inams to Artisans and others for servicesrendered to the village community. (c) Village service inams.V. Miscellaneous Inams.
All grants of land, either free of tax or subject to Jodi (light assessment) andwhether supported by Sannads or otherwise, shall be held to be valid,provided they are registered in Poorniah's Inamty Account of 1800 to 1810.
Inams granted by the Maharaja Krishnaraja Wadeyar III, during hisHighness' Administration between 1810 and 1831 for which sannads and"Niroopas" are forthcoming, shall also be held to be valid.
All other inams not falling under the two foregoing divisions, no matterby whom granted, shall also be held valid upon the production of trustworthy"Sannads" or other genuine documentary evidence of their existence for the
last 50 years.
Classification of inams. After the validity of the inam has been proved,each case will be disposed of as hereafter explained, according as it belongsto one or other of the following general classes.(a) Grants or endowments made for the support of religious and charitableinstitutions, and for the maintenance of persons therein rendering services;(Devadaya, Brahmadaya and Dharmadaya inams fall under this category)(b) Personal or subsistence grants;(c) Grants made by former Governments for service in the Revenue andPolice Departments, which is no longer required;(d) Village Service Inams
Treatment of religious and charitable inams
All inams, coming underRules I, II and III which are held by religious and charitable institutions andby persons therein rendering service, should be confirmed to their present holders, so long as the institutions are kept in good order and servicecontinued to be performed, according to the condition of the grant.(a) Kodagi inams.
Inams granted for the construction and repair of wells,tanks, water channels, and such like works, will not be interfered with solong as the works are kept in good order, and the terms of the grants arefulfilled.VI. All personal inams are to be treated according to the terms of the Sannadunder which they are held.(a) Inams granted by Competent Authorities vesting the grantee with fullpowers of alienation will not be subjected to any quit-rent.
All inams forwhich there are sannads, vesting the grantee with full powers of alienationand absolute right of disposal granted by Competent Authorities, such as the
Emperors of Delhi, the Maharaja, and his predecessors on the throne of Mysore, and by other independent chiefs, the late Peishwas and the Nizamand not subsequently resumed, or modified, will be confirmed, whether inthe hands of the original grantees, their descendants, or alienees, without the
imposition of an indemnification fee.(b) Treatment of inams for which there are no sannads and those producedare of an hereditary character.
Inams for which no sannads are produced,
or where the sannads produced are of an hereditary character, and wherethe tenure is not specifically restricted are to be confirmed to the present holder, and to his heirs, male or female, in directed succession, and toundivided brothers, and cousins, and to persons whose adoptions were madein conformity with the Hindu Law.(c) Enfranchisement at a uniform rate of one-eight quit-rent irrespective of the position of the present incumbent with regard to heirs. Option however,will be given to the inamdar to render these grants perpetual and alienable,by payment of a quit-rent equal to one-eighth assessment of the entiretenure, irrespective of his position with regard to heirs.(d) Enfranchisement compulsory in the case of alienees.
Enfranchisement of these inams in the hands of alienees is compulsory and not optional as inthe preceding clause.

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