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Exlusion and Inclusion

Exlusion and Inclusion

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Published by Jain Abhishek

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Published by: Jain Abhishek on Sep 24, 2011
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11/13/2012

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CHAPTERFIVE
TheInclusion-ExclusionPrinciple;Probability
Inthischapterweproveatheoremofaverybroadkindandthenapplyittoparticularproblems.Theideaof
probability
isintroducedtowardstheendofthechapter.
5.1AGeneralResult
Itwillbeconvenienttoleaduptotheinclusion-exclusionprinciplebyasequenceofthreeproblemslistedinincreasingorderofdifficulty.Thefirstproblemisnotverydifficultatall.
PROBLEM
5.1Howmanyintegersbetween1and6300inclusivearenotdivisibleby5?Sincepreciselyeveryfifthnumberisdivisibleby5,weseethatofthe6300numbersunderconsideration,exactly6300/5or1260aredivisibleby5.Hencetheanswertothequestionis6300-1260
=
5040.
 
68
MATHEMATICSOFCHOICE
PROBLEM5.2Howmanyintegersbetween1and6300inclusivearedivisiblebyneither5nor3?ToanswerthiswecouldbeginbyparallelingtheargumentinProblem5.1andsaythatthenumberofintegersunderconsiderationthataredivisibleby5is1260,andthenumberdivisibleby3is6300/3or2100.But6300-2100-1260isnotthecorrectanswertotheproblem,becausetoomanyintegershavebeensubtractedfromthe6300.Numberslike15,30,45,...whicharedivisiblebyboth3and5havebeenremovedtwicefromthe6300integersunderconsideration.Soweseethatwemustaddbackthenumberofintegersdivisiblebyboth3and5,thatis,di-visible]by15.Thereare6300/15or420ofthose.Thuswegettheanswer6300-2100-1260
+
420
=
3360.PROBLEM5.3Howmanyintegersbetween1and6300inclusivearedivisiblebynoneof3,5,7?Tosolvethiswecanbeginwithananalogytothepreviousargumentandfirstremovefromthe6300integersthosedivisibleby3,innumber2100,thosedivisibleby5,innumber1260,andthosedivisibleby7,innumber900.Thus6300-2100-1260-900isastarttowardtheanswer.However,numbersdivisiblebyboth3and5havebeenremovedtwice;likewisenumbersdivisiblebyboth3and7;likewisenumbersdivisiblebyboth5and7.Henceweaddbackthenumberofintegersdivisiblebyboth3and5,namely6300/15or420,alsothenumberdivisiblebyboth3and7,namely6300/21or300,andalsothenumberdivisiblebyboth5and7,namely6300/35or180.Wenowhave6300-2100-1260-900
+
420
+
300
+
180andareclosertotheanswer.Butonefinaladjustmentmustbemadebecauseofintegersdivisibleby3,by5,andby7,e.g.,105,210,315
t
AfullerdiscussionofsuchdivisibilitypropertiesisgiveninChapter1of
I.
Niven's
Numbers:RationalandIrrational
inthisseries.
 
PROBABILITY
69
andsoon.Suchintegersarecountedintheoriginal6300,arecountedoutinthe2100,1260and900,andthencountedbackinthe420,300,and180.Theneteffectisthateachsuchintegerhasbeencountedinonce,outthreetimes,andthenbackinthreetimes.Hencethefinaladjustmentistocountthemoutagain,andsowesubtract6300/105or60.ThustheanswertoProblem5.3is(5.1)6300-2100-1260-900+420+300+180-60
=
2880.Thereare2880integersbetween1and6300inclusivethataredi-visiblebynoneof3,5,7.Thethreeproblemsjustdiscussedcanbeansweredbyappealtoageneralprinciple.Supposethatwehave
N
objects.Supposethatsomeoftheseobjectshaveproperty
a,
andsomedonot.Let
N(a)
denotethenumberhavingproperty
a.
Similarly,supposethatsomeoftheobjectshaveproperty
{3,
andsomedonot.Let
N
({3)
denotethenumberhavingproperty
(3.
If
thereareotherproperties
'Y,
0,
.."let
N
('Y),
N
(0),
denotethenumberofobjectshavingproperty
'Y,
thenumberhavingproperty
0,.
In
theproblemsabovetheobjectsaretheintegersfrom1to6300inclusive,andso
N
=
6300.Theproperties
a,
(3,
arethedi-visibilityproperties;forexample,anintegerhastheproperty
'Y
if
itisdivisibleby7.Continuingthegeneralanalysis,let
N(a,
(3)
denotethenumberofobjectshavingbothproperties
a
and
{3.
Let
N(a,
(3,
'Y)
denotethenumberhavingthethreeproperties
a,
{3
and
'Y.
In
thesameway
N(a,
(3,
'Y,
0)
denotesthenumberofobjectshavingthefourproperties
a,
(3,
'Y
and
o.
Nowsupposeweaskthequestion:·Howmanyofthe
N
objectsdonothaveproperty
a?
Theanswer,
N-N(a),
isobtainedbyasimplesubtraction.ThisisanalogoustoProblem5.1.Howmanyobjectshaveneithertheproperty
a
nor
(3?
Theanswer
IS
N-N(a)-N({3)
+
N(a,
(3).
ThisisanalogoustoProblem5.2.Howmanyoftheobjectshavenoneofthethreeproperties
a,
{3,'Y?

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