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Exlusion and Inclusion

# Exlusion and Inclusion

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11/13/2012

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CHAPTERFIVE
TheInclusion-ExclusionPrinciple;Probability
probability
isintroducedtowardstheendofthechapter.
5.1AGeneralResult
PROBLEM
=
5040.

68
MATHEMATICSOFCHOICE
+
420
=
+
420
+
300
+
t
AfullerdiscussionofsuchdivisibilitypropertiesisgiveninChapter1of
I.
Niven's
Numbers:RationalandIrrational
inthisseries.

PROBABILITY
69
=
N
objects.Supposethatsomeoftheseobjectshaveproperty
a,
andsomedonot.Let
N(a)
denotethenumberhavingproperty
a.
Similarly,supposethatsomeoftheobjectshaveproperty
{3,
andsomedonot.Let
N
({3)
denotethenumberhavingproperty
(3.
If
thereareotherproperties
'Y,
0,
.."let
N
('Y),
N
(0),
denotethenumberofobjectshavingproperty
'Y,
thenumberhavingproperty
0,.
In
theproblemsabovetheobjectsaretheintegersfrom1to6300inclusive,andso
N
=
6300.Theproperties
a,
(3,
arethedi-visibilityproperties;forexample,anintegerhastheproperty
'Y
if
itisdivisibleby7.Continuingthegeneralanalysis,let
N(a,
(3)
denotethenumberofobjectshavingbothproperties
a
and
{3.
Let
N(a,
(3,
'Y)
denotethenumberhavingthethreeproperties
a,
{3
and
'Y.
In
thesameway
N(a,
(3,
'Y,
0)
denotesthenumberofobjectshavingthefourproperties
a,
(3,
'Y
and
o.
N
objectsdonothaveproperty
a?
N-N(a),
isobtainedbyasimplesubtraction.ThisisanalogoustoProblem5.1.Howmanyobjectshaveneithertheproperty
a
nor
(3?
IS
N-N(a)-N({3)
+
N(a,
(3).
ThisisanalogoustoProblem5.2.Howmanyoftheobjectshavenoneofthethreeproperties
a,
{3,'Y?