john m. chivington and the sand creek massacre: infamous for his role in the 1864 sand creek
massacre, where colorado territory militia attacked and destroyed a village of cheyenne and
arapaho encamped on the eastern plains.
great sioux reserve: other of to reservations given to sioux in present day south dakota. however,
many of the tribes rejected a sedentary farming way of life. hostility followed as violent indians
troubled white settlers and pioneers. the army retaliated on any native american out of the
sitting bull: leader of the sioux tribe that became a prominent indian leader during custer's last
stand in 1876, while he made medicine for crazy horse and his army. him and others fled to
george armstrong custer: former civil war general who attacked 2,500 sioux warriors near the little
big horn river in montana and killed them all. his army consisted of 264 men that were defeated
after colums failed to arrive.
helen hunt jackson, a century of dishonor: writer using his book to call for change on te treatment
of native americans. jackson sent his book to every congress member, although it was not
recieved well for it's insulting cover.
wovoka, the ghost dance, and wounded knee: wovoka made predictions of peace with white settlers and clean lives. the ghost dance was a native american religious movement and the wounded knee was the last true conflict between the lakota sioux and the united states.
pacific railroad act, 1862: construction of the first transcontinental railroad in the west had been
authorized by this act. labor was performed by the poorer classes and immigrant e.g. chinese and
irish immigrants, as well as mexican-americans and african- americans.
timber culture, desert land, and timber and stone acts, 1870s: desert act made 640 acres of land $1.25 per acre if irrigated in three years by buyer. the timber and stone acts stated that 160 acres of land could be purchased from the federal government, if able to acquire it's timber or minerals.
joseph g. mccoy and the cattle frontier: the cattle frontier was a confinement of the plains indians on reservations, extension of the railroad to kansas, and the construction of new stockyards and railheads such as abilene made possible the open-range cattle industry.
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