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Principios de física (2 de 4)

Principios de física (2 de 4)

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Principios de física (libro de texto, capítulos 5 a 8) Visita http://prepa-abierta-yolteotl.blogspot.com/
Principios de física (libro de texto, capítulos 5 a 8) Visita http://prepa-abierta-yolteotl.blogspot.com/

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C a p \u00edtu lo
5
C O N S ID E R A C IO N E S
E L A S T IC A S
E L A S T IC ID A D ;
V IB R A C IO N E S ;
F L U ID O S
E l
c o n c e p to
d e
e la s tic id a d .
E n
la s
c o n s id e ra c io n e s
a n te rio -
re s
e l c o n c e p to
d e fu e rz a
se discuti\u00f3
e n
re la c i\u00f3 n
a l m o v im ie n to ,
p e ro
n o
se sugiri\u00f3
n in g \u00fa n
m \u00e9 to d o
d ire c to
p a ra
m edirla,
e x c e p to
por un
d in a m \u00f3 m e tro .
P a ra
com prender
el fundam ento
d e
e s te
m \u00e9 to d o
debem os
c o n o c e r
u n a
im p o rta n te
p ro p ie d a d
d e
l a
m a-
t e r i a
lla m a d a
e la s tic id a d .
H asta
a q u \u00ed
s e
h a n
c o n s id e ra d o
s o la -
m e n te
a
la s
fu e rz a s
e x te rn a s
a c tu a n d o
so b re
lo s
c u e rp o s
y
l a
p ro p ie d a d
d e
l a
m ateria
lla m a d a
in e rc ia ;
la s
fu e rz a s
ta m b i\u00e9 n
p ro d u c e n
e fe c to s
in te rn o s
q u e ,
p o r
s u p u e s to ,
n o
p u e d e n
com -
p re n d e rs e
p o r c o m p le to
h a s ta
a b o rd a r
u n
e s tu d io d e la e s tru c tu ra
de la
m ateria;
a u n q u e
e s te
e s tu d io
n o
e s
a p ro p ia d o
p o r
a h o ra ,
a lg u n a s
c a ra c te r\u00eds tic a s
s o b re s a lie n te s
d e
l a
m ateria
s e rv ir\u00e1 n
p a ra
a c la ra r
e s te
p u n to .
T o d a
l a
m ateria,
adem \u00e1s
d e
te n e r
in e rc ia ,
se deform a
m \u00e1s
o m enos
p o r
l a
a p lic a c i\u00f3 n
de. fuerzas,
c a ra c te riz \u00e1 n d o s e ,
adem \u00e1s,
p o r
s u
te n d e n c ia
a
re c u p e ra rs e
d e
d ic h a
d e fo rm a c i\u00f3 n ,
q u e
p u e d e
ser un
c a m b io
d e
fo rm a,
d e
v o -
lu m e n ,
o
d e
am bos.
E sta
p ro p ie d a d
s e
llam a
e la s tic id a d
y
s u
e je m p lo
m \u00e1s
s e n c illo
e s e l e s tira m ie n to
de un
re s o rte .
E n
o tra s
p a la b ra s ,
l a
m ateria
p u e d e
im a g in a rs e
com o
p o s e y e n d o
c ie rta s
p ro p ie d a d e s :
d o s
d e
\u00e9 s ta s
so n
l a
in e rc ia
y
l a
e la s tic id a d .
El resorte
e s tira d o .
C uando
s e
c u e lg a
u n
p e s o
e n
e l e x tre -
m o de un resorte
v e rtic a l, s e h a e n c o n tra d o
p o r e x p e rim e n ta c i\u00f3 n ,
q u e
e l
r e s o r te
s e
e s t i r a
u n a
d is ta n c ia
q u e
e s
d ire c ta m e n te
p ro p o rc io n a l
a l
v a lo r
d e
l a
fu e rz a
a p lic a d a .
E sto
s ig n ific a
q u e
l a
fu e rz a
d e
g ra v e d a d
q u e
re c ib e
u n
c u e rp o
d e
d o b le
m asa
q u e
o tro ,
d e b e
e s tira r
el resorte
d e
d o n d e
e s t\u00e1
s u s p e n -
8 0
F IS IC A .
S IN
M A T E M A .T IC A S
d id o , e l d o b le
d e
d is ta n c ia
q u e
el cuerpo
m \u00e1s
lig e ro . E v id e n te -
m e n te ,
p ro p o rc io n a
e s te
fen\u00f3m eno
u n
m e d io
m uy
s e n c illo
d e
com parar
fu e rz a s .
E n
e s te
p rin c ip io
s e
b a s a
e l ,d in a m \u00f3 m e tro
(F ig .
5 .1 ).
A dem \u00e1s,
e s .im p o rta n te
n o ta r
q u e
c u a n d o
s e
lib e ra
el resorte
r e g r e s a
. a
s u
e s ta d o
o rig in a l,
e x c e p to
q u e
s e
h a y a
s o b re c a rg a d o ,
e n
c u y o
c a s o
s e
p ro d u c e
u n a
d e fo rm a c i\u00f3 n
p e r-
m a n e n te
y e n to n c e s
se dice que se ha
e x c e d id o
el l\u00edm ite
e l\u00e1 s tic o .
I
,,
, . - _ J . _ " , \
I
\
& ..-
a
F IG . 5 .1 .
E l
d in a m 6 m e tro
( o
b a la n z a
d e
re s o rte )
fu n c io n a
p o r
e la s -
tic id a d .
E l
a la rg a m ie n to
d e l
r e s o r te
e s
p ro p o rc io n a l
a
l a
fu e rz a
a p lic a d a
Ley de H ooke.
E l q u e la d e fo rm a c i\u00f3 n
s e a d ire c ta m e n te
p ro .
p o rc io n a l
a
l a
fu e rz a
a p lic a d a ,
e s
u n
c a s o
e s p e c ia l
d e
u n a
le y
f \u00ed s i c a
fundam ental
lla m a d a
le y
d e
H ooke
e n
honor de
R o b e rto
Hooke, su
d e s c u b rid o r.
E n
s u
fo rm a
m \u00e1s
g e n e ra l,
e s ta
le y d ic e
q u e
c u a n d o
se produce
u n a
d e fo rm a c i\u00f3 n
e n
u n
c u e rp o
p o r
l a
a p lic a c i\u00f3 n
d e
u n a
fu e rz a ,
l a
fu e rz a
d e
re s titu c i\u00f3 n
p o r
u n id a d
de \u00e1rea
(lla m a d a
e s fu e r z o )
-q u e
d e s a rro lla n
to d o s
lo s
c u e rp o s
e l\u00e1 s tic o s -
e s
p ro p o rc io n a l
a
l a
d e fo rm a c i\u00f3 n
fra c c io -
n a l
(lla m a d a
d e fo r m a c i\u00f3 n
u n ita r ia ),
siem pre
que no
se exceda
el l\u00edm ite
e l\u00e1 s tic o ;
e s d e c ir, d e n tro
del l\u00edm ite
el\u00e1stico, el esfuerzo
e s
p ro p o rc io n a l
a
l a
d e fo rm a c i\u00f3 n
u n ita ria .
M o v im ie n to a rm \u00f3 n ic o
sim p le.
En un
r e s o r te
e s tria d o
se tiene
e l e je m p lo
de una
fu e rz a
c u y o v a lo r v a r\u00eda
c o n fo rm e
se estira
e l
re s o rte .
O
d ic h o
d e
o tra
m anera,
l a
fu e rz a
p ro d u c e
u n
d e s p la -
z a m ie n to
d ire c ta m e n te
p ro p o rc io n a l
a
s\u00ed m ism o.
A p lic a n d o
l a
S e g u n d a
L e y d e N e w to n ,
s e n o ta
q u e
e s ta
fu e rz a
a c tu a n d o
so .
b re
u n
c u e rp o
d a d o
d e b e
p ro d u c irle
u n
m o v im ie n to
e n
d o n d e
, .
~
C O N S I D E R A C I O N E S
E L A S T IC A S
8 1
l a
a c e le ra c i\u00f3 n
ta m b i\u00e9 n
v a r\u00eda
d ire c ta m e n te
c o n
e l
d e s p la z a -
m ie n to
del cuerpo,
m e d id o
a partir
d e la p o s ic i\u00f3 n
d o n d e
e s t\u00e1
e n
e q u ilib rio .
Este es el caso
m ostrado
e n
e l e x p e rim e n to
s ig u ie n te .
U n
r e s o r te
d e l
q u e
c u e lg a
u n
c u e rp o
m asivo,
q u e d a
c o n
u n
c ie rto
a la rg a m ie n to ;
s i
a h o ra
e l
r e s o r te
s e
e s t i r a
m \u00e1s
a \u00fa n
y
e n to n c e s
s e .s u e lta ,
el cuerpo
o s c ila
h a c ia
a rrib a
y
h a c ia
a b a jo
(F ig .
5 .2 ).
L a s m e d id a s
m uestran
q u e e l m o v im ie n to
del cuerpo
s e
c a ra c te riz a
ju s ta m e n te
p o r
l a
c o n d ic i\u00f3 n
d e s c rita ,
a
s a b e r,
q u e
l a
a c e le ra c i\u00f3 n
e n
c a d a
p u n to
e s d ire c ta m e n te
p ro p o rc io n a l
a l d e s p la z a m ie n to
d e l p u n to
a
p a rtir
d e
l a
p o s ic i\u00f3 n
d e
e q u ili-
b rio . E n
l a
p o s ic i\u00f3 n
d e e q u ilib rio ,
l a
v e lo c id a d ,
a u n q u e
a lc a n z a
s u
v a lo r
m \u00e1 x im o ,
n o
e s t\u00e1
c a m b ia n d o
( a
=
O ),
m ientras
q u e
F IG . 5 .2 .
E je m p lo
d e m o v im ie n to
a rm \u00f3 n ic o
sim p le
P u n to d ~
" - - - 1
e q u ilib n o
1 _ _ ,
r - - f
I
l
~
e n
c u a lq u ie r
p o s ic i\u00f3 n
e x tre m a ,
d o n d e
l a
v e lo c id a d
m o m e n t\u00e1 -
n e a m e n te
v a le
c e ro ,
l a
v e lo c id a d
c a m b ia
m \u00e1s
r\u00e1 p id a m e n te
( a
=m \u00e1xim o).
E s te m o v im ie n to
es el que
se llam a
m o v im ie n to
arm \u00f3nico
sim p le
(F ig .
5 .3 ).
L a
im p o rta n c ia
d e
e s ta
c la s e
d e
m o v im ie n to
c o n s is te
e n
q u e
se produce
c u a n d o
u n
c u e rp o
e l\u00e1 s -
tic o
deform ado
e s
lib e ra d o
d e
l a
fu e rz a
d e fo rm a d o ra
y
la s
v ib ra c io n e s
re s u lta n te s
tie n e n
lu g a r e n
l\u00edn e a re c ta .
Por supuesto,
e x is te n
tip o s
m \u00e1s
c o m p lic a d o s
d e
v ib ra c i\u00f3 n ,
p e ro
to d a s
la s
v ib ra c io n e s
re c til\u00edn e a s
d e
p e q u e \u00f1 a
a m p litu d
s o n ,
e n
p rim era
a p ro x im a c i\u00f3 n ,
m o v im ie n to s
a rm \u00f3 n ic o s
sim ples.
C a ra c te r\u00eds tic a s
d e
lo s
m o v im ie n to s
v ib ra to rio s .
U na
v ib ra -
c i\u00f3 n
a rm \u00f3 n ic a
sim p le,
p o r
s e r
u n
m o v im ie n to
p e ri\u00f3 d ic o ,
s e
e s p e c ific a
a
m enudo
p o r
s u
fr e c u e n c ia ,
d e fin id a
com o
el n\u00fa-

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