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Published by: api-27281066 on Oct 14, 2008
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B. Rama Mohan Reddy1, Arun Lal Gain1, M. Lakshmi Kiranmayi1,
M. Naveen Kumar1, Navneet T. Narayan1, T.N.D. Prasanth1, T. Sumala1, Tejaswi Geetla1,
Aishwarya2, Ravindra Gettu1*, J. Murali Krishnan1, and Manu Santhanam1


There is a general consensus that semi-flexible pavements combine the advantages of asphalt concrete with cement concrete. Cement-grouted asphalt concrete is a good candidate for semi- flexible pavements. However, little investigation on the issues related to the production, construction and performance monitoring of cement-grouted asphalt concrete mixtures are available in the literature. In this paper, a preliminary investigation on the fabrication of cement-grouted asphalt concrete in the laboratory is described. The initial results are quite promising and warrant a full-fledged investigation on various issues related to the fabrication, characterization and utilization of these mixtures.


Asphalt concrete is widely used in the construction of roads, highways, bridge deck top layers, and pavements in airports and other areas with heavy wheel loads. The important characteristics of asphalt concrete that have led to such widespread utilization include low curing period, good point-load carrying capacity, skid resistance, ease of maintenance and repair. Nevertheless, asphalt concrete has some important disadvantages such as surface deterioration and rutting due to repeated concentrated loads and temperature changes [1]. To overcome the problem of high deformability, semi-flexible pavements of open-graded (or porous) asphalt concrete filled with cement-based grouts have been constructed in applications where the pavement is subjected to high wheel loads, especially in parking and braking areas. When the void volume, which is about 30%, is filled with cement grout, the resulting composite has material characteristics and load-carrying capacity that are higher than in asphalt concrete [2] though lower than usual cement concrete. The open-graded asphalt concrete used has a bitumen content of about 4-5% and some filler. The benefits of cement-grouted asphalt concrete (CGAC), as observed in airport projects in Denmark and France [2], include the possibility of removing the pavement easily for accommodating airport redesign, fast curing, elimination of joints, skid resistance and low cost. Applications in the US have also demonstrated the benefits of using CGAC in parking areas for heavy trucks, airport aprons and container staging areas [3]. Cement mortar filled asphalt pavements have been used since the 1950s under different trade names such asSalviacim,Betophalt,

Densiphalt, grouted porous asphalt [4, 5] and, more recently, as combi-layers[6].
1 Department of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600036, India.
2 Department of Civil Engineering, Vignan Jyothi College of Engineering, Hyderabad.
* Contact author, e-mail:g ett u @iitm.ac.in

The objective of the present paper is to explain the results of preliminary trials performed for obtaining CGAC with locally-available materials. As there are no established design methods for such materials, the trials were useful for studying the requirements for proper composite action and working toward the optimization of the material.


CGAC is essentially a three-phase material consisting of aggregates, bitumen-filler binder and hardened cement-based grout, where the latter two phases can be considered as continuous (see Fig. 1). Since the hardened grout is relatively stiffer than the bitumen, the composite is less flexible than regular asphalt concrete [7].


Fig. 1 (a). Idealized structure of the cement-grouted asphalt concrete, where the darkest
region represents the bitumen binder and the lightest coloured region represents the
grout and (b) saw cut made along the casting direction of 150\u00d7150 mm CGAC cube.

For developing the material, the procedure adopted has three steps: the fabrication of an open- grade asphalt concrete with about 20-30% of inter-connected voids, the preparation of a cement-based grout that is fluid, segregation-resistant and rapid-hardening, and the filling of the voids in the former, after it has reached ambient temperature, with the latter, by gravity (i.e., without forcing the grout through vibration or air pressure). The bond between the bitumen binder and the aggregates is good due to the adsorption of the binder on the surface of aggregates but the bond between the cement grout and the binder is weak.

The variables in the fabrication of the asphalt concrete are the grain size distribution of the aggregates, the filler content and the bitumen content. In general, low filler content and high volume of the mid-size fractions seem to give the optimum structure. The cement grout should be able to fill the voids without segregating, implying the need for a fluid but cohesive slurry. Also, the water content should be limited so that the strength is not affected. This necessitates the use of a superplasticizer. The possibility of cracking due to thermal and shrinkage-induced stresses should be reduced by using mineral fines to partially substitute the cement.

Fabrication of open-graded asphalt concrete
The crushed granite aggregate fractions used in the fabrication are given in Table 1, along
with their specific gravities.
Table 1. Aggregates used
fraction (mm)
19.0 \u2013 13.2
13.2 \u2013 4.75
4.76\u2013 2.36
2.36 \u2013 0.6
< 0.6 (filler)
The bitumen used had a penetration grade of 60/70 and a specific gravity of about 1.01. The
bitumen content was varied between 4 to 5%, by weight.

The open-graded asphalt concrete is fabricated as follows: the aggregates are maintained at a temperature of 160 \u00baC in an oven for at least 24 hours before mixing, the required quantities of aggregates are transferred to a heated pan and the desired amount of bitumen is added, the mixture is mixed and poured into a mould.

At least four mixes were fabricated and tested. The grain size distributions of the aggregates in each mix are shown in Fig. 2. Mix 1 was similar to a regular asphalt concrete mix but had a low void content and could not be grouted successfully. The other mixes are similar with differences in filler content; mixes 2, 3 and 4 have filler contents of 4, 0 and 1%, respectively, and in mix 4 the coarsest fraction content was increased from 5 to 8%, all by weight.

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