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20557391 Pressure Drop Calculation

# 20557391 Pressure Drop Calculation

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10/25/2012

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Pressure drop calculation - theory
In this calculator well known equations have been used. Here you can find all of them for your review.First of all, pressure drop through the pipe due to friction and local losses can be calculated as follows:where is:
Dp - pressure drop
rho - fluid density
Q - volumetric flow rate
D - pipe diameter
lambda - friction coefficient
L - pipe length
sum ksi - the sum of minor losses coefficient
To calculate mass flow rate following equation has been used:where is:
G - mass flow rate
For pressure drop calculation because of friction, viscosity of fluid has to be known. Relation betweendynamic and kinematic viscosity is as follows:where is:
mi - dynamic viscosity
ni - kinematic viscosity

Velocity of flowing fluid is calculated based on the continuity equation:where the cross section of round pipe is:To find out if the flow is laminar or turbulent, Reynolds number must be calculated:

Friction coefficient for laminar flow is:for flow in hydraulically smooth pipe (Blasius equation):for turbulent flow with Re<100 000 (Prandtl equation):for turbulent flow with Re>100 000 (Karman equation):The boundary layer thickness (delta) can be calculated based on the Prandtl equation as:and when the boundary layer thickness is bigger than pipe roughness and if the flow is turbulent, thanit can be considered as flow in hydraulically smooth pipe and Blasius equation is used.
Pipe diameter calculation - theory
Pipe diameter can be calculated when volumetric flow rate and velocity is known as:where is:
D - pipe diameter
Q - volumetric flow rate
V - velocity
If mass flow rate is known than diameter can be calculated as:
where is:G - mass flow rate
rho - fluid density

If the flowing fluid is gas than the density can be calculated if pressure, temperature and gas constantis known as:where is:
p - pressure

T - temperature
R - gas constant

It is important to say that the flow rate is depending on the pressure difference between two points.This calculator is for the calculation if you already know the flow rate. If the flow rate is to becalculated also, than you should usepressure drop calculator.
Control valve sizing calculation
It is well known that for the completely turbulent flow relationship between fluid flow rate andpressure drop follows the power low. Flow coefficient is the proportional constant betweenpressure drop and flow rate and it is determined experimentally by valve manufactures. It isexpressed as the flow rate of water in gpm u.s. (m3/h) for a pressure drop of 1 psi (1 bar) acrossa flow passage.note: (flow coefficient: Cv-imperial, Kv-metric)For correct control valve sizing it is important to calculate flow coefficient using this calculator.When flow coefficient is calculated for required flow rate and known pressure drop, selection of proper control valve can be done by selecting control valve with first bigger flow coefficient.Also using this calculator you can calculate maximum flow rate through control valve for givenpressure drop and known flow coefficient or valve size.This version of calculator can be used for turbulent flow of water or other incompressible fluid, asviscosity and expansion effect is not included. It means that for steam and gas control valve youwill need to use other calculation methods. Also, possible flashing and cavitation may reduce thecontrol valve capacity, as it is not treated in this version calculator.Read about usedtheoryfor control valve sizing calculation
Control valve sizing calculation - theory
Control valve sizing is based on the calculation of flow coefficient for given pressure drop and fluid flowrate. Main equation that gives relation between flow rate and pressure drop is:for imperial units, and:for metric units, where is:
C
v
- flow coefficient in imperial units
v
- flow coefficient in metric unitsDp - pressure drop through control valve
Q - fluid flow rate