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Trees are pruned to provide clearance for overhead utili\ue000 ty lines. Heading, the removal of all the branches at one level, promotes dense regrowth.
Regrovi/th after heading results in a tangle of branches even harder to control and can seriously damage over\ue000 head utility lines.
From the day any plant begins life as a seedling, its growth is influenced by climatic and biological condi\ue000 tions. Climates vary considerably over large and small geographic regions. Differences in climates are deter\ue000 mined by amounts of rainfall, sunshine, mountain ranges, longitude and latitude, elevations and bodies
The ability of plants to grow and survive in any par\ue000 ticular climate is calledhardiness. Growth of all plants is influenced by the following conditions:
Scientists have been studying these influences for centuries. In many cases, their effect on the way some plants function is still not completely understood. For\ue000 tunately, the gardener only needs to understand a few basic facts about how plants grow and the influences that affect them.
Photosynthesis converts energy from the sun into starches and sugars, or food. This food is a basic sugar. When leaves don't receive enough sunlight to manu\ue000 facture food, they drop from the plant.
Shaded areas of plants tend to become bare of foliage. Shaded parts may fail to bloom, or if they bloom, only a few blooms will set fruit. Pruning helps trees or shrubs arrange foliage to intercept the sunlight.
ous plants lose all their leaves each year. Perennial plants live from year to year. Studies have produced little knowledge about how day length initiates flower\ue000 ing or leaf-drop.Evergreen tropical and subtropical plants are not affected by day length. Evergreen plants don't lose all their leaves each year.
a pronounced effect on plants. Each climate differs in amount and intensity of sunlight, temperature ex\ue000 tremes and many other variables. All the factors above have various effects on plants depending upon the season of the year.
Day length and temperature initiate a series of physi\ue000 cal and chemical changes in plants each year. These changes are calleda c c lim a tio n . The acclimation process helps plants acquire resistance to cold. Acclimation enables plants to survive winter months.
The initial phases of acclimation are started by de\ue000 creasing day length. Latter phases of acclimation depend on the occurrence of colder temperatures.
Left: The side of a tree that faces a larger tree is dwarfed because the smaller tree is shaded from the sunlight. Center: A tree growing in an open field is more symmetrical because light evenly illuminates all sides. Right: Leaves on plants will always orient themselves toward the dominant light source.
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