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APUSH-Chapter 7

APUSH-Chapter 7

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Published by Siwon Kim
APUSH-YISS-Ch7
APUSH-YISS-Ch7

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Published by: Siwon Kim on Sep 25, 2011
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11/04/2012

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Chapter 7: The American Revolution (1776-1786)
-The Evolution of the Continental Army-1778: Call for soldiers throughout the country-Valley Forge: The major starting point 
about 11,000 soldiers gathered-Soldiers were in poor condition (No food, no clothes, no shoes)-Nearly 1,000 African American soldiers joined-Some women joined to take care of the soldiersThe War for Independence-British troops: Well-supplied, well disciplined, and powerful.-American troops: Some experience from the Continental War, homelandadvantage.-The geography of Eastern America made the existence of one vital centerimpossible.-The Patriots fought on their homeland, with troops spread throughout thenation.The Patriot Forces-More than 100,000 served in the Continental Army (Commanded byWashington)-Citizens wanted to serve in the community of their choices, andcommanders of their choices, and avoided disciplines.-Washington wanted a full-scale army to face off the British-Failing military campaigns stimulated the Congress to enlarge state quotaand prolong the term-In the backcountry and the South, Patriots and Loyalists engaged in violence-Evolved into powerful force, but shortage of supplies and pay led tomutinies.-Patriots seized control of local government in most communities-Women assumed the management of family business-Many casualties at the Battle of Germantown
many women enlisted asmenThe Loyalists-A fraction of the population: Loyalists (or Tories)-Some enlisted in British army, and some were recent immigrants-New York, Pennsylvania, Georgia-Patriots prohibited speaking and writing against revolution-Patriots punished Loyalists by issuing bills of attainder (later illegalized byUS Constitution)-Infamous turncoat: Benedict Arnold-Many fled to Canada
 
The Campaign for New York and New Jersey-Early July of 1776: British began their operation at New York City-American troops fortified in Brooklyn-Late August: British attack 
Many America
n casualties; Washington’s
troop was vulnerable under fire.-Patriots lost at Long Island, and withdrew to Manhattan-September 6, 1776: British tried to negotiate
asked to repeal theDeclaration of Independence
Led to another fight -British attacked Manhattan
American position at Harlem Heightsprevented large destruction
British navy outflanked.-British overran Fort Washington and Fort Lee-Many soldiers deserted or ended their terms-Christmas night 1776, Washington crossed to Delaware, defeated theHessian forces in Trenton, NJ.The Northern Campaigns of 1777-July 6:Burgoyne took Fort Ticonderoga, but later was harassed by Gates, andretreated to Saratoga.-October 19: Burgoyne surrendered-
July: Howe’s troops left 
New York -
August: Howe’s
troops landed at the northern end of Chesapeake Bay-September 11: British outflanked American defense at Brandywine Creek 
 Washington fell back -British attacked American at Paoli
March towards Philadelphia-September 26: British gained Philadelphia-October 4: Washington tried to counterattack, but failed-Continental Congress continued at York The French Alliance and the Spanish Borderlands-Americans were sustained by French and Spanish loans-France and Spain sought to regain American territories-Benjamin Franklin went to Paris and asked for recognize of America as anindependent nation-Comte de Vergennes inclined to support America (still feared Independent America)-In England, the Whigs opposed the war-
December 1777: The news of Burgoyne’s s
urrender
Prime Ministerwanted peace talk in Paris with Franklin-Victory at Saratoga and other perspectives made French openly support America-Spain was also supplying Americans in New Orleans-Americans failed to make an alliance with Spain (Spanish were aware of American threat to New Spain)-Spanish pursued independent strategy against Britain-Spring of 1778: Lord North sent a peace commission to repeal all tax acts-
June 1778: Clinton’s British army left Philadelphia (feared French entrance)
 
 
-June 28: Battle of Monmouth (British defeated American to gain orderlyretreat to New York City)-Patriots saw victory imminent -French-American joint attack on British failed at New Port, RI
Americandefensive warIndian Peoples and the Revolution in the West -Iroquois was the most powerful-America: Iroquois should keep out -Britain: Iroquois should join British side-Iroquois joined Britain
to protect their homeland-British officials called the support of Cherokees, Creeks, Choctaws, andChickasaws
gave them arms from British arsenal until Spanish took it in1781-Resulted in ferocious fighting in backcountry-Mohawk leader Joseph Brant collected the warriors-1777 and 1778, Iroquois and Loyalist forces raided the northernfrontiers of New York and PennsylvaniaThe War in the South-1775: Lord Dunmore declared to free any slaves or indentured servant whowould fight for Britain
More than 800 slaves revolted-December 1778: Clinton sent a force from New York against Georgia-October 1779: Clinton evacuated Rhode Island-British marched to Charleston, and forced the surrender of more than 5000American troops-1781: Patriot used fugitive (guerilla) warfareYorktown-Stalemate in Northeast -French troop of General Jean Baptiste Donatien de Vimeur, comte deRochambeau landed on Newport, RI.-
1781: French joins Washington’s forces
 -French and Americans surrounded the British encampment -After failing to escape, British forces in Yorktown surrendered.-British public was not against the warThe Articles of Confederation-The first written constitution of the United States-Took place in the Continental Congress-November 1777: Articles of Confederation were formally adopted-Created a national assembly (the congress)-National postal system and standard weight and measurement -March: The Articles of Confederation took effect 

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