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New Update LED Report Final ByXia

New Update LED Report Final ByXia

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Published by: api-3703387 on Oct 14, 2008
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03/18/2014

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Topics on LED
Group members

Sooseok Oh
Xia Cao
Lakshminarayanan Mukundagiri
Fang Chu

Chapter 1 Introduction
1.1 Background Information

The light emitting diode (LED) could be considered the ultimate general source of continuous light because of its high luminescence (EL) efficiency, quick response time, and long lifetime. For example, the electrical efficiency of a standard \u201cwhite\u201d light is almost halved if a color filter is employed to produce color, such as is the case for traffic signal lights. A more sensible approach would be to use colored LEDs. This would also reduce the amount of maintenance required, as standard traffic light signal lights need to be replaced every six months. The initial cost of replacing standard traffic signal lights with colored LEDs would be rewarded within ten years. In addition, the cost for white LEDs is reduced year by year with the advance of related technology. Therefore, the cost would not be a problem in the near future.

Table1.1 is a comparison of light bulbs and LEDs for application in traffic lights and railway
signals.
Light Bulbs
LEDs
Power consumption
Red
70Watt
Red
18Watt
Yellow
70Watt
Yellow
20Watt
Green
70Watt
Blue ~ green
17Watt
Replacement interval
6 ~ 12 months
5 ~ 10 years (estimated)
Failure mode
Sudden total failure
Gradual intensity decrease
Visibility
Uses color filter, reflects sunlight
Direct
Cost
Expensive at maintenance
Cheap at manufacturing
Cheap at maintenance
Expensive at manufacturing
Luminous Efficacy (lm/w)
10 ~ 85 lm/W
100 lm/W
Table 1.1

For room light application, the power and stability requirement for LEDs is higher. Basically, 100 lm/W white LED is needed for meeting the requirement. Two announcements from Cree and Nichia make the room light application closer to reality and the Meijo University in Japan also announced high efficient white LED:

(1) On Nov 16, 2005:
A scientist, Prof. Satoshi Kamiyama, at the Meijo University in Japan has announced a
white LED of 130 lm/W using a purple LED and a silicon carbide substrate. He will establish a
startup to manufacture and sell their white LED units using a purple LED on a silicon carbide
substrate.
http://www.treehugger.com/files/2005/11/white_led_break.php
(2) On June 20, 2006:
Cree has demonstrated a cool-white LED that achieves an efficacy of 131 lm/W@20mA
http://cree.com/press/press_detail.asp?i=1150834953712

(3) On Nov 15, 2006:
Nichia has developed white LEDs with indium tin oxide contacts that can deliver an
efficacy of 138lm/W@20mA

(4)
On Dec 20, 2006:
Nichia Achieved 150 lm/W White LED Development @ 20mA drive current
1.2 Introduction to Nitride-based LED Technology
Nowadays, in industry, two major methods are to generate white LED. (see Fig1.1)
Fig1.1 White LED generation

One is to mix RGB (red, green, blue) to generate white light. The other is to use blue LEDs with sufficiently high energy to excitephosphors or YAG phosphor powder to generate white light. With this method, only one blue LED chip is required. Most currently available white LEDs are based on the blue LED and phosphor approach. Therefore, the price is lower than that with the first method. From the information above, it is clearly known that the blue or purple LED is the key to white LED generation.

The Fig 1.2 shows a comparison of white LED Technologies.

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