Introduction - What is Tourism? Online LessonSince the beginning of time humans have traveled. Food, water, safety or acquisitionof resources (trade) were the early travel motivations. But the idea of travel forpleasure or exploration soon emerged. Travel has always depended upon technologyto provide the means or mode of travel. The earliest travelers walked or rodedomesticated animals. The invention of the wheel and the sail provided new modesof transportation. Each improvement in technology increased individuals'opportunities to travel. As roads were improved and governments stabilized,interest in travel increased for education, sightseeing, and religious purposes. One of the earliest travel guides was written by Pausanias, a Greek, which was a 10volume
Guide to Greece
, for Roman tourists in 170 A.D..Tourism is a collection of activities, services and industries that delivers a travelexperience, including transportation, accommodations, eating and drinkingestablishments, retail shops, entertainment businesses, activity facilities and otherhospitality services provided for individuals or groups traveling away from home.The World Tourism Organization (WTO) claims that tourism is currently theworlds largest industry with annual revenues of over $3 trillion dollars. Tourismprovides over six million jobs in the United States, making it the country's largestemployer.Definition of TourismMathieson and Wall (1982) created a good working definition of tourism as "thetemporary movement of people to destinations outside their normal places of work and residence, the activities undertaken during their stay in those destinations, andthe facilities created to cater to their needs."According to Macintosh and Goeldner (1986) tourism is "the sum of the phenomenaand relationships arising from the interaction of tourists, business suppliers, hostgovernments and host communities in the process of attracting and hosting thesetourists and other visitors."Other terms of interest are:Excurionist: Persons traveling for pleasure in a period less than 24 hours(Macintosh and Goeldner, 1986).