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Forensics Word

Forensics Word

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[
FORENSIC PATHOLOGY]
IIB med
FORENSIC PATHOLOGY

\u2022 FORENSIC SCIENCE
\u2013 FORENSIC SEROLOGY
\u2013 FORENSIC CHEMISTRY
\u2013 FORENSIC GENETICS
\u2013 FORENSIC BIOCHEMISTRY/MOLECULAR

BIOLOGY

\u2013 FORENSIC ANTHROPOLOGY
\u2013 FORENSIC ODONTOLOGY
\u2013 FORENSIC ENTOMOLOGY
\u2013 FORENSIC BOTANY

FORENSIC PATHOLOGY\u2022 FORENSIC MEDICINE
\u2013 FORENSIC PATHOLOGY
\u2013 FORENSIC OBSTETRICS
\u2013 FORENSIC GYNECOLOGY
\u2013 FORENSIC PEDIATRICS
\u2013 FORENSIC PSYCHIATRY
\u2013 FORENSIC PHARMACOLOGY
\u2013 FORENSIC ENT/OPTHA
\u2022 MEDICAL JURISPRUDENCE

Person of Historical Significance
Edmond Locard (1877-1966)

. French professor
. Considered the father of criminalistics
. Built the world\u2019s first forensic laboratory in France in
1910

The Locard Exchange Principle

\u2022 Every time an object comes into contact with
another object, it either leaves a portion of itself or
takes a portion of the other object with it
\u2013 Every contact leaves its trace

CRIME SCENE TEAMCRIME SCENE TEAM

..A group of professional investigators, each trained in
a variety of special disciplines.
..Team Members
..First Police Officer on the scene
..Medics (if necessary)
..Investigator(s)

....Medico legal Officer Or Forensic Pathologist
(if necessary)(if necessary)
..Photographer and/or Field Evidence Technician
..Lab Experts

Processing a body
1. Obtain victim\u2019s clothing for more

thorough analysis in lab
2. Fingernail scrapings
3. Hair sample
4. Blood sample
5. Other bio-samples
6. Hand swab (for GSR)

Forensic Pathologists
\u2022 Perform autopsies and diagnosecircumstances
surrounding the cause and manner of death

\u2022 Determine whether death was
- Accidental
- Suicidal
- Homicidal

MEDICOLEGAL OFFICER\u2019S RESPONSIBILITIES

. Identify the deceased
. Establish the TOD and DOD
. Determine a medical COD \u2014the injury or disease that
resulted in the person dying
. Determine the MEOD\u2014the physiological reason that
the
person died
. Classify the MOD

- Natural
- Accidental
- Suicide
- Homicide
- Undetermined

. Notify the next of kin
Autopsy Examination

\u2022Autops y means to look at oneself
\u2022Necropsy means to look at the dead
\u2022 Autopsies have been practiced since
the middle ages
\u2022 Term autopsy generally used in
Philippines

Purposes of Autopsy

1. determine or confirm the cause of death
2. improve the diagnosis of a specific disease
3. advance medical and scientific knowledge
4. aid in the evaluation of new techniques,procedure or
medications
5. help clinicians avoid repeating errors in diagnosis
and therapy in future cases
6. aid in medical education
7. may absolve guilt and remove concern about
possible genetic defects.

Autopsy Under the Philippine System
\u2022 MEDICOLEGAL AUTOPSIES
\u2022 NON-MEDICOLEGAL AUTOPSIES OR HOSPITAL CASES
Autopsy Process

- Incisions created in chest, abdomen
and head;
- Removal of organs from those areas
- Y or T-shaped incision is typically

used, because it facilitates
examination of tongue and neck
- Brain is removed via incision from

behind one ear to behind other ear
- Scalp is pulled upward and backward
- Skull is sawed circularly or in a

tonsorial manner
- Brain may be dissected immediately,
or
placed in formaldehyde to preserve
1
[
FORENSIC PATHOLOGY]
IIB med
tissue for better examination

\u2022 Other internal organs are removed and
weighed
\u2022 Organs are also dissected to determine
disease or injury
\u2022 In certain cases such as child abuse,
spinal injury, and subtle blunt trauma
more extensive dissection and removal
may be completed

Obtaining Appropriate Specimens

\u2022 Toxicology requires adequate
specimens for testing
\u2022 Blood is usually taken from aorta
\u2022 Bile taken from gall bladder
\u2022 Blood, urine, liver, kidney and brain
used to determine presence of drugs
\u2022 Blood-alcohol or Urine-drugs
\u2022 Information from medical history,
witness statements, scene examination, and autopsy
may be used to search for other drugs or poisons

Microscopic Examination

\u2022 Small portions of organs are put into
a solution of formaldehyde to
preserve them for study
\u2022 Diseased or injured sections of
tissue are taken, as is normal tissue
\u2022 Tissue is encased in paraffin and
mounted on slides with H&E dye for
examination under light microscope

DNA Analysis

\u2022 Preserve one specimen of tissue for DNA analysis
\u2022 If tissue sits in formaldehyde for too long, DNA
becomes hydrolyzed and unsuitable for study
\u2022 DNA embedded in paraffin blocks or cut into sections
and made into
slides will not further decompose

DNA Collection

\u2022 Methods to accomplish this:
\u2013 Blood spotted on absorbent paper
allowed to dry then stored in envelope
\u2013 Pull head hairs, including bulbs, and
place in envelope
\u2013 Cut hair has mitochondrial DNA, bulbs include
nuclear DNA

Photography

\u2022 Both film and digital photography are used,
depending on law
enforcement jurisdiction

\u2022 Multiple photographs must be taken
DEATH
\u2022Complete
\u2022Irreversible

\u2022 The Organ Donation Act of 1991
(RA7170), as amended, defines death
as \u201cthe irreversible cessation of
circulatory and respiratory functions or
the irreversible cessation of all functions
of the entire brain, including the brain
stem.\u201d

\u2022 Cardiopulmonary Death

\u2013 there is an absence of natural respiratory and cardiac
functions and, attempts at resuscitation would not be
successful in restoring those functions.

\u2013 In this case, death shall be deemed to
have occurred at the time these functions ceased; or
\u2022 Brain Death

\u2013 there is an irreversible cessation of all
brain functions; and considering the absence of such
functions, further attempts at resuscitation or
continued supportive maintenance would not be
successful in resorting such natural functions.

\u2013 In this case, death shall be deemed to
have occurred at the time when these
Conditions first appeared.

POSTMORTEM CHANGES AND POSTMORTEM
CHANGES AND
TIME OF DEATH

1. ALGOR MORTIS (BODY COOLING)
AND

2. RIGOR MORTIS.
Body warm not stiff less than 3 hours
Body warm stiff 3-8 hours
Body cool stiff 8-36 hours
Body cool not stiff more than 36 hours

3. LIVOR MORTIS (HYPOSTASIS, POST MORTEM

LIVIDITY, POSTMORTEM SUGGILLATIONS)
4. POSTMORTEM DECOMPOSITION (PUTREFACTION)
5. ADIPOCERE

6. MUMMIFICATION
7. MACERATION
8. AQUEOUS HUMOUR POTASSIUM
9. STOMACH CONTENTS
10. Forensic Entomology
11. last known activity (last sighting,

newspaper/mail)
INDIVIDUAL OBSERVATIONS USED TO ESTIMATE
TIME OF DEATH
2
[
FORENSIC PATHOLOGY]
IIB med

\u2022 When used together the following
individual observations of a body may
be used to estimate the time of death
\u2013 body temperature
\u2013 rigor mortis
\u2013 livor mortis
\u2013 decomposition changes
\u2013 stomach contents

Cause of Death and Manner of Cause of Death
and Manner of Death
\u2022The Cause and Mechanism of Death

is the
physiological incident which
started the physical progression of
death in the body.

\u2022The Manner of Death, on the other
hand, is which category the death falls
into. Manner of Death can be one
of five categories: Homicide, Suicide,

Natural, Accidental, or Undetermined.
EVIDENCE FROM WOUNDS
COMMON TYPES OF WOUNDS
No blackening around entry; star-shaped, often
with flaps
directed outward
Blackening around entry; grains of powder and
deposits of
powder residue
None of the above characteristics appear
Firearm:

Contact (muzzle against
body)
Close (less than 18
inches)
Distant (18 inches or
more)

Characteristics and Type of Wound
GUNSHOT WOUNDS
BULLET WOUNDS
\u2022Point of Entry and Exit Point
- Bullet is spinning as it hits the body

the entry
area is usually smaller than the exit wound.
\u2022 Bullet may ricochet inside the tissue &
travels a path which is not a straight line.
\u2022 Powder burns -near range hits.
\u2022 contusion ring (abrasion collar) around the bullet
wound usually indicates the angle and close range.

A BULLET PENETRATING THE SKIN

\u2022 When a bullet penetrates the skin:
\u2013 the skin is pressed inward
\u2013 the skin is stretched and perforated
\u2013 the skin then returns to its original

position
Bullet Entry wound \u2013 contact

range star-shaped laceration
Abrasion ring \u2013 contact range
Bullet Trajectory -Murder

\u2022 CLOSE WOUND

\u2013 Petechiae
\u2013 Contusion
\u2013 Hematoma

\u2022 OPEN WOUND

\u2013 Incised
\u2013 Stab
\u2013 Punctured
\u2013 Laceration

Contusions color changes a bruise goes through can
give rough
estimate of time of injury

\u2022 Dark blue/purple (1-18 hours)
\u2022Blue/brown (~1 to 2days)
\u2022Green (~ 2 to 3 days)
\u2022Yellow (~3 to 7 days)

Assumes person is healthy.
BLUNT TRAUMA

The blow produces a crushing effect
Resulting in contusions, abrasions,
lacerations, fractures, or rupture of
vital organs.

\u2022 Red-blue contusions are always
present, but this varies by the weight of
the individual (obese people bruise
easier than lean people).

Contusion: 1 week. (Yellow
green)
COMMON TYPES OF WOUNDS
Strangulation
- Ligature and Manual

Mark encircling neck in a horizontal plane overlying
larynx or upper trachea; sometimes broken at back of
neckwhere
hand grasped ligature; abrasions and contusions of
skin not usually present
Abrasions, contusions and fingernail marks on skin.

Defenses
Commonly found on palms of hands, fingers, forearms
Lacerations

Open, irregularly shaped wounds, caused by clubs,
pipes, pistols and other blunt instrument wounds
accompanied by bruising or bleeding

3

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