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18.1 - Calculations Involving Acids and Bases

18.1 - Calculations Involving Acids and Bases

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Published by: IB Screwed on Sep 26, 2011
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12/17/2014

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 http://ibscrewed4chemistry.blogspot.com/ 
18.1
 – 
Calculations Involving Acids and Bases
18.1.1 - State the expression for the ionic product constant of water
The ionisation of water happens according to the equation:





   

 
Using this, we can find the expression of the equilibrium constant:
[

][

][

]
 
However, the concentration of water is relatively constant, so it can be removed from theequation. This is because the equilibrium lies so far to the left that the change inconcentration does not have a significant effect on the value of K
c
. Therefore, it can bewritten as:

  




 
 
The dissociation of water is an endothermic reaction. As a result, the K
w
value increases asthe temperature increases.
 
 http://ibscrewed4chemistry.blogspot.com/ 
18.1.2 - Deduce [H
+
(aq)] and [OH
-
(aq)] for water at different temperatures given K
w
values
Given a temperature and the value of K
w
, we can calculate the value of [H
+
], using theequation:

 
Since OH- and H+ are in equal ratios of 1:1, in pure water, [H
+
] = [OH
-
], so:
 
√ 
 [OH
-
] will be equal to [H
+
].
18.1.3 - Solve problems involving [H+(aq)], [OH-(aq)], pH and pOH
If the pH of a solution is <7, it is acidic. If the pH is >7, then it is alkaline. The pH of a solutionis found according to the equation:
 



 
Therefore, given the pH, the [H
+
] can be found using:


 
Likewise, the pOH is found according to the equation:



 Given the pOH, the [OH
-
] can be determined:



 
If you are given the concentration of a basic solution and need to find the pH, this can bedone by rearranging the equation for K
w
:

 The [H
+
] can then be used to find the pH.Alternatively, if you are given the [OH
-
] and calculate the pOH, then pH can be found by:
 
 
 http://ibscrewed4chemistry.blogspot.com/ 
When you are given the equation for the reaction of a strong acid or base with water andthe initial concentration of acid or base, then you can
assume complete dissociation
. Thismeans that the [H
+
] or [OH
-
] will be equal to the initial concentration of acid or base.However, it is essential to check the stoichiometric ratio of acid-H
+
or base-OH
-
, as this willneed to be taken into account. For example, looking at a diprotic acid:

 






 
The concentration of [H
+
] (or [H
3
O
+
]) will be double the initial concentration of H
2
SO
4
.Also, the pK
w
can be calculated, given the K
w
:

 

 18.1.4 - State the equation for the reaction of any weak acid or weak base with water, andhence deduce the expressions for K
a
and K
b
 
When a weak acid reacts with water, the reaction will favour the left-hand side of theequation and it will have a small equilibrium constant.





 
The K
a
is simply the K
c
for the reaction multiplied by [H
2
O], so that it given the expression:
 


 
Likewise, if we are given a reaction for a weak base with water:






 
The K
b
is found the same way, giving the expression:



 
You will only ever be asked about reactions involving the transfer of one proton

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