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Country Report on Technical and Vocational Education and Training in Zambia

Country Report on Technical and Vocational Education and Training in Zambia

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Published by Gakon
The report looks at the current TVET system in Zambia. This is followed by a discussion of the issues and concerns of the UNEVOC Centre and how the Centre can contribute to the
Network Recommendations on what is needed to develop the network given. The report ends with a conclusion that emphasizes the strength of networking and collaboration.
The report looks at the current TVET system in Zambia. This is followed by a discussion of the issues and concerns of the UNEVOC Centre and how the Centre can contribute to the
Network Recommendations on what is needed to develop the network given. The report ends with a conclusion that emphasizes the strength of networking and collaboration.

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Published by: Gakon on Oct 14, 2008
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REPUBLIC OF ZAMBIA
UNEVOC International Experts Consultation SeminarCountry Report on Technical and Vocational Education andTraining in Zambia
 
Gabriel S KonayumaSenior TEVET Offcier
Ministry of Science, Technology and Vocational Training, Zambia
DublinAugust 2008
 
UNEVOC International Experts Consultation Seminar. Dublin: August 2008
 _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  GGSSKKoonnaa y yuummaa,,ZZaammbbiiaa[[
Country Report of TVET in Zambia]
 
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Country Report of TVET in Zambia
Gabriel S. Konayuma, BA Ed., MBA
Senior TEVET Officer, Ministry of Science, Technology and Vocational Training, Zambia.
gkonayuma@mstvt.gov.zm 
INTRODUCTIONCountry Background
Zambia is located in Central Africa, between latitudes 18°S and 22°S, and landlocked witheight neighbours (i.e. Angola, Namibia, Botswana, Zimbabwe, Mozambique, Malawi,Tanzania, and Democratic Republic of Congo). Zambia is divided into nine provinces. Theprovinces which serve as administrative divisions are: Central, Copperbelt, Eastern, Luapula,Lusaka, Northern, North-Western and Southern. The capital city is Lusaka. The country isfurther divided into 72 districts. Zambia has a total area of 752, 210 square kilometres. Thepopulation is 10.8 million (Central Statistical Office, 2003:9). Zambia is a unitary headed bya Republican President who is elected by universal suffrage for a term of five years.Zambia has a mixed economy consisting of a modern urban sector that, geographically,follows the old line of rail and a largely rural agricultural sector. Zambia’s gross domesticproduct (GDP) is K1,528,506 (equivalent to US$ 354.90) (Bank of Zambia, 2005:1). Themajor tourist attractions are Victoria Falls (one of the 7 natural wonders of the world);Kariba Dam (one of the largest man-made lake); 19 National Parks and 34 gamemanagement areas as well as 23 million hectares devoted to the conservation of an amazingvariety of wild animals and bird species. The country also holds a number of traditionalceremonies including the Kuomboka, Ncwala, Likumbi Lyamize, Shimunenga, Mutomboko.The currency is Kwacha (ZMK) = 100 Ngwee. The exchange rate is market determined.Average exchange rate is ZMK K3,400= US $1 in August 2008.The report looks at the current TVET system in Zambia. This is followed by a discussion of the issues and concerns of the UNEVOC Centre and how the Centre can contribute to theNetwork Recommendations on what is needed to develop the network given. The report endswith a conclusion that emphasizes the strength of networking and collaboration.
CURRENT TVET SYSTEM
The Government of Zambia, through the Ministry of Science, Technology and VocationalTraining has been working on reforming its system of technical education, vocational andentrepreneurship training (TEVET). This has been done through Policy Review, enactment of new legislation and adoption of strategies to implement the TEVET Policy. In 1996, theGovernment issued a policy document, i.e. Technical Education, Vocational andEntrepreneurship Training (TEVET) Policy. This policy is currently undergoing review. Thereview is being undertaken in order to address changes is the socio-economic set-up of thenation. In addition, a policy document that has been in existence for twelve years, definitelyneeds to be evaluated to establish what has worked and what has not worked. The reviewprocess involves interviews and administration of questionnaires to TVET Providers,
 
UNEVOC International Experts Consultation Seminar. Dublin: August 2008
 _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  _  GGSSKKoonnaa y yuummaa,,ZZaammbbiiaa[[
Country Report of TVET in Zambia]
 
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ministries in the TVET sector, employers, informal sector, TVET students and graduates andprovincial and district administration. Workshops have been held in all provinces in order toconfirm with various stakeholders the main issues and concerns in the TVET sector.
Entrepreneurship and Informal Sector Training
It needs to be noted that the TEVET Act led to the creation of entrepreneurship and informalsector training. This was meant to address the shrinking formal sector. Many African nationshave experienced shrinking formal sectors. This has been due to embracing economicreforms. These reforms have been characterised by privatisation of parastatals, reduction of the formal sector through retrenchments. The shrinking formal sector has led to a growth of the informal sector (Konayuma, 2006:3).
Regulation of TEVET
The Act also led to the creation of the Technical Education, Vocational and EntrepreneurshipTraining Authority (TEVETA). TEVETA’s function is to regulate and monitor TVET inZambia. TEVETA does this through inspections carried out by part-time inspectors in all theprovinces and through full-time staff based at it’s headquarters in Lusaka. TEVETA is alsoresponsible for the development and review of national curricula. It facilitates thedevelopment of local curricula for training institutions. The TEVET Act of 1998 has sincebeen reviewed. The TEVET Act No. 11 of 2005 has since been enacted.
Department of Vocational Education and Training
In 2000, the Department of Technical Education and Vocational Training (DTEVT) wasdissolved. In it’s place TEVETA, mentioned above, was established. With the dissolution of DTVET, the 23 institutions which it managed were placed under management boards. TheDepartment of Vocational Education and Training (DVET) in the Ministry of Science,Technology and Vocational Training was created to formulate, monitor and evaluate theTEVET Policy. The department also promotes TEVET and also assesses the impact of TEVET programmes. Another function of the department is to increase stakeholderparticipation in the provision of TEVET. Before the current TVET reforms that started in thenineties, TVET provision was mostly done by public institutions. Currently TVET provisionis done by private institutions, faith based organisations, trusts and community basedinstitutions. The department has two units: Entrepreneurship and Skills units.
Organisation of TVET
The TVET is sector is organised into three major parts: policy making, regulation and trainingprovision.
 
The Ministry of Science, Technology and Vocational Training (MSTVT) throughDVET is responsible for TEVET provision.
 
TEVETA is responsible for regulation of the TEVET sector.
 
Registered training institutions offer training.Public institutions are under TVET sector ministries such as Education, Community andSocial Development, Science, Technology and Vocational Training, Tourism, Environmentand Natural Resources. These ministries in addition to Labour and Social Security andCommerce and Industry belong to an Inter-Ministerial Committee which discusses issues of common interest and concern in TVET. Apart from the Committee the Chief ExecutiveOfficers of these ministries also meet at least twice a year.

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