Welcome to Scribd, the world's digital library. Read, publish, and share books and documents. See more
Download
Standard view
Full view
of .
Look up keyword
Like this
14Activity
0 of .
Results for:
No results containing your search query
P. 1
18.2 - Buffer Solutions

18.2 - Buffer Solutions

Ratings: (0)|Views: 1,903|Likes:
Published by IB Screwed

More info:

Published by: IB Screwed on Sep 26, 2011
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

Availability:

Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less

04/13/2013

pdf

text

original

 
 http://ibscrewed4chemistry.blogspot.com/ 
18.2
 –
Buffer Solutions
18.2.1 - Describe the composition of a buffer solution and explain its action
Buffer solutions maintain the pH of solutions by resisting changes caused by the addition of an acid or base.
 Acidic Buffer Solution
This is formed from a weak acid and salt of its conjugate base.





 
In this equation, HA is the weak acid and A
-
is the conjugate base. The equilibrium of thereaction favours the left hand side, so there is a larger proportion of the weak acid.The reaction with the salt is shown below:







 
Here, MA is the salt and MOH is the strong base. The salt will then dissociate into its ions,M
+
and A
-
 
Basic Buffer Solution
This is formed from a weak base and a salt of its conjugate acid.






 
Here, B is the weak base and BH
+
is the conjugate acid. The negative ion from a strong acidis added:



 

 
The salt, BHX, will dissociate completely in solution to form BH
+
and X
-
. As a result, thesolution will have high proportions of both B and BH.If a small amount of acid is added to the solution, it will react with the B to counteract thechange in pH. Likewise, if a base is added, the HB
+
dissociates to provide more H
+
ions,thereby restoring the pH.
 
 http://ibscrewed4chemistry.blogspot.com/ 
BufferSolutionMade up of When a smallamount of acid isaddedWhen a smallamount of basic isadded
 
Acidic
Keep pHbelow 7Weak acidConjugate baseof weak acidInitial decrease in pHConjugate basereacts:
A
-(aq)
+ H
+(aq)
 
HA
(aq)
 
pH increases afterreactionInitial increase in pH
H
+(aq)
+ OH
-(aq)
H
2
O
(l)
 Weak aciddissociates
HA
(aq)
A
-(aq)
+ H
+(aq)
 
pH decreases afterHA dissociates
Basic
Keep pHabove 7Conjugate acidof weak baseWeak baseWeak base reactsB
(aq)
+ H
+(aq)
 
BH
+(aq)
 pH increases as H
+
 reacts
 Initial increase in pHConjugate aciddissociates
BH
+(aq)
 
B
(aq)
+ H
+(aq)
 pH decreases asconjugate aciddissociates
18.2.2 - Solve problems involving the composition and pH of a specified buffer system
Ethanoic Acid and Sodium Ethanoate
The buffer is a mixture of the weak acid CH
3
COOH and the salt of the acid with a strong baseCH
3
COONa:To do the calculations, we assume:1.
 
The weak acid only dissociates a tiny amount, and can therefore be disregarded.[HA]
initial
 
≈ [HA]
equilibrium
2.
 
The salt completely dissociates into its ions[MA]
initial
 
[A
-
]
equilibrium
 
 http://ibscrewed4chemistry.blogspot.com/ 
The equilibrium expression for the acid (using the equilibrium concentration values) is:
[
][
][]
 Which can be rearranged to give the formula:
[
]
[
][]
 Based on the assumptions made above, this can be substituted to give:
[
]
[]

[]

 
or in other terms:
[
]
 [][]
 When the -log
10
is taken of this equation, it gives the equation:

[][]
 
So, continuing with the example of ethanoic acid and sodium ethanoate:
 
The pK
a
of ethanoic acid is 4.76
 
0.10 mol dm
-3
ethanoic acid
 
0.15 mol dm
-3
sodium ethanoate
 


 
 
 
 Ammonia and Ammonium Chloride
For a basic buffer solution:

[][]
 
All the same principles of an acidic buffer solution apply to basic buffer solutions.

Activity (14)

You've already reviewed this. Edit your review.
1 hundred reads
1 thousand reads
Aylin Huzmeli liked this
Rumila Gungah liked this
Sabrina Soin liked this
Maren Baarlid liked this
Claudia Stocker liked this

You're Reading a Free Preview

Download
scribd
/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->