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Ancient Vedic Mathematics

Ancient Vedic Mathematics

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03/18/2014

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For the good of the Hindus who would be benefitted with this document . Also see
http://www.esnips.com/web/PUBLIC-DOMAIN for regular updates with new books
Pl visit my website athttp://www.esnips.com/web/PUBLIC-DOMAIN , regularly for
many documents of ancient India . Comments to cyberhinwa@gmail.com
If we, the daughters and sons of the Bharata Mata (Mother India), do not help our other
sisters and brothers then who else ???
History ofGanit (Mathematics)
Introduction
Ganit (Mathematics) has been considered a very important subject since ancient times.

We find very elaborate proof of this inVedah (which were compiled around 6000 BC).
The concept of division, addition et-cetera was used even that time. Concepts of zero and
infinite were there. We also find roots of algebra in Vedah. When Indian Beez Ganit
reached Arab, they called it Algebra. Algebra was name of the Arabic book that
described Indian concepts. This knowledge reached to Europe from there. And thus
ancient Indian Beez Ganit is currently referred to as Algebra.

The book Vedang jyotish (written 1000 BC) has mentioned the importance of Ganit as
follows-

Meaning: Just as branches of a peacock and jewel-stone of a snake are
placed at the highest place of body (forehead), similarly position of Ganit is
highest in all the branches ofVe dah andShastras

Famous Jain Mathematician Mahaviracharya has said the following-
For the good of the Hindus who would be benefitted with this document . Also see
http://www.esnips.com/web/PUBLIC-DOMAIN for regular updates with new books
Pl visit my website athttp://www.esnips.com/web/PUBLIC-DOMAIN , regularly for
many documents of ancient India . Comments to cyberhinwa@gmail.com
Meaning: What is the use of much speaking. Whatever object exists in this
moving and nonmoving world, can not be understood without the base of
Ganit(Mathematics).

This fact was well known to intellectuals of India that is why they gave special
importance to the development of Mathematics, right from the beginning. When this
knowledge was negligible in Arab and Europe, India had acquired great achievements.

People from Arab and other countries used to travel to India for commerce. While doing
commerce, side by side, they also learnt easy to use calculation methods of India.
Through them this knowledge reached to Europe. From time to time many inquisitive
foreigners visited India and they delivered this matchless knowledge to their countries.
This will not be exaggeration to say that till 12th century India was the World Guru in the
area of Mathematics.

The auspicious beginning on Indian Mathematics is in Aadi Granth (ancient/eternal
book) Rigved. The history of Indian Mathematics can be divided into 5 parts, as
following.

1) Ancient Time (Before 500 BC)
a)Vedic Time (1000 BC-At least 6000 BC)

a)Later Vedic Time (1000 BC-500BC)
2) Pre Middle Time (500 BC- 400 AD)
3) Middle Time or Golden Age (400 AD - 1200 AD)
4) Later Middle Time (1200 AD - 1800 AD)
5) Current Time (After 1800 AD)

1) Ancient Time (Before 500 BC)

Ancient time is very important in the history of Indian Mathematics. In this time different
branches of Mathematics, such as Numerical Mathematics; Algebra; Geometrical
Mathematics, were properly and strongly established.

There are two main divisions in Ancient Time. Numerical Mathematics developed in
Vedic Time and Geometrical Mathematics developed in Later Vedic Time.
1a) Vedic Time (1000 BC-At least 6000 BC)
Numerals and decimals are cleanly mentioned in Vedah (Compiled at lease 6000 BC).
There is aRicha in Veda, which says the following-
For the good of the Hindus who would be benefitted with this document . Also see
http://www.esnips.com/web/PUBLIC-DOMAIN for regular updates with new books
Pl visit my website athttp://www.esnips.com/web/PUBLIC-DOMAIN , regularly for
many documents of ancient India . Comments to cyberhinwa@gmail.com
In the above Richa ,Dwadash (12),Treeni (2),Trishat (300) numerals have
been used. This indicates the use of writing numerals based on 10.
In this age the discovery ofZERO and "10th place value method"(writing number
based on 10) is great contribution to world by India in the arena of Mathematics.
If "zero" and "10 based numbers" were not discovered, it would not have been possible
today to write big numbers.

The great scholar of America Dr. G. B. Halsteed has also praised this.
Shlegal has also accepted that this is the second greatest achievement of
human race after the discovery of Alphabets.

This is not known for certain that who invented "zero" and when. But it has been in use right from the "vedic" time. The importance of "zero" and "10th place value method" is manifested by their wide spread use in today's world. This discovery is the one that has helped science to reach its current status.

In the second section of earlier portion of Narad Vishnu Puran (written by Ved Vyas)
describes "mathematics" in the context of Triskandh Jyotish. In that numbers have been
described which are ten times of each other, in a sequence (10 to the power n). Not only
that in this book, different methods of "mathematics" like Addition, Subtraction,
Multiplication, Addition, Fraction, Square, Square root, Cube root et-cetera have been
elaborately discussed. Problems based on these have also been solved.

This proves at that time various mathematical methods were not in concept stage, rather
those were getting used in a methodical and expanded manner.

"10th place value method" dispersed from India to Arab. From there it got
transferred to Western countries. This is the reason that digits from 1-9
are called "hindsa" by the people of Arab. In western countries
0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9 are called Hindu-Arabic Numerals.

1b) Later Vedic Time (1000 BC - 500 BC)
1b.1) Shulv and Vedang Jyotish Time
Vedi was very important while performing rituals. On the top of "Vedi" different type of
geomit(geometry: as you notice this word is derived from a Sanskrit word)) were made.

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