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Process Control Fundamentals

Process Control Fundamentals

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Instrumentation & Control
Process Control Fundamentals
Table of Contents
Fundamentals of Control
ii
\u00a9 2006 PAControl.com
Introduction..................................................................................................................................................... 1
Performance Objective............................................................................................................................. 1
The Importance of Process Control............................................................................................................... 1

Learning Objectives.................................................................................................................................. 1
The Importance of Process Control................................................................................................................. 2
Process...................................................................................................................................................... 2
Process Control........................................................................................................................................ 2
Reduce Variability............................................................................................................................. 2
Increase Efficiency............................................................................................................................ 3
Ensure Safety..................................................................................................................................... 3

Control Theory Basics.................................................................................................................................... 4

Learning Objectives.................................................................................................................................. 4
The Control Loop............................................................................................................................................. 5
Three Tasks...............................................................................................................................................5
Process Control Terms....................................................................................................................................6
Process Variable.......................................................................................................................................6
Setpoint.....................................................................................................................................................6
Measured Variables, Process Variables, and Manipulated Variables.....................................................7
Error.........................................................................................................................................................7
Offset.........................................................................................................................................................8
Load Disturbance.....................................................................................................................................8
Control Algorithm.....................................................................................................................................8
Manual and Automatic Control................................................................................................................9
Closed and Open Control Loops..............................................................................................................10

Components of Control Loops and ISA Symbology...................................................................................... 11

Learning Objectives.................................................................................................................................. 11
Control Loop Equipment and Technology....................................................................................................... 12
Primary Elements/Sensors........................................................................................................................ 12
Transducers and Converters..................................................................................................................... 13
Transmitters.............................................................................................................................................. 13
Signals...................................................................................................................................................... 14
Pneumatic Signals............................................................................................................................. 14
Analog Signals................................................................................................................................... 14
Digital Signals................................................................................................................................... 15
Indicators.................................................................................................................................................. 15
Recorders.................................................................................................................................................. 16
Controllers................................................................................................................................................ 16
Correcting Elements/Final Control Elements.......................................................................................... 18
Actuators................................................................................................................................................... 18

Table of Contents
iii
Fundamentals of Control
\u00a9 2006 PAControl.com

ISA Symbology.................................................................................................................................................19
Symbols................................................................................................................................................... 20
Pumps.............................................................................................................................................. 21
Piping and Connections.................................................................................................................. 22
Identification Letters............................................................................................................................... 23
Tag Numbers........................................................................................................................................... 23
ISA Symbology Review........................................................................................................................... 26

Controller Algorithms and Tuning...............................................................................................................27

Learning Objectives.................................................................................................................................27
Controller Algorithms.....................................................................................................................................28
Discrete Controllers................................................................................................................................28
Multistep Controllers................................................................................................................................29
Continuous Controllers............................................................................................................................29
Why controllers need tuning?...........................................................................................................................31
Gain..........................................................................................................................................................31
Proportional Mode..........................................................................................................................................33
Proportional Gain....................................................................................................................................33
Proportional Band....................................................................................................................................33
Limits of Proportional action...................................................................................................................34
Determining the Controller Output..........................................................................................................34
Proportional Action- Closed Loop........................................................................................................... 35 .
Integral Mode................................................................................................................................................. 37
Integral Action........................................................................................................................................ 37
Open Loop Analysis................................................................................................................................ 37
Closed Loop Analysis............................................................................................................................. 38
Reset Windup.......................................................................................................................................... 39
Summary................................................................................................................................................. 40
Derivative Mode.............................................................................................................................................. 41
Derivative Action.................................................................................................................................... 41
Rate Summary......................................................................................................................................... 44

Process Control Loops.....................................................................................................................................46

Learning Objectives..................................................................................................................................46
Single Control Loops.......................................................................................................................................47
Feedback Control.....................................................................................................................................47
Examples Of Single Control Loops..................................................................................................................48
Pressure Control Loops............................................................................................................................49
Flow Control Loops..................................................................................................................................49
Level Control Loops.................................................................................................................................50
Temperature Control Loops.....................................................................................................................51

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