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Psychological Disorders Hand-Out

Psychological Disorders Hand-Out

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06/01/2014

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1
 
Psychological 
 
Disorders
 
Aguilar.
 
Decimar.
 
Viaña
 
Statistics:
 
 
USA
 
44
 
million
 
Americans
 
each
 
year
 
suffer
 
from
 
a
 
psychological
 
disorder
 
Out
 
of 
 
20,000
 
individuals
 
in
 
the
 
USA:
 
32
 
%
 
had
 
experienced
 
a
 
psychological
 
disorder
 
in
 
their
 
lifetime
 
20
 
%
 
currently
 
had
 
an
 
active
 
disorder
 
17
 
%
 
had
 
a
 
substance
 
abuse
 
disorder
 
Philippines
 
In
 
88
 
million
 
Filipinos,
 
880,000
 
are
 
expected
 
to
 
be
 
schizophrenic
 
NSO
 
Survey
 
(2000)
 
Mental
 
illness
 
 –
 
3
rd
 
most
 
common
 
form
 
of 
 
disability
 
after
 
visual
 
and
 
hearing
 
disabilities
 
Average
 
of 
 
88
 
reported
 
cases
 
of 
 
mental
 
illness
 
per
 
100,000
 
Filipinos
 
0.7%
 
of 
 
the
 
total
 
household
 
in
 
the
 
Philippines
 
during
 
the
 
year,
 
2004,
 
have
 
a
 
member
 
with
 
mental
 
disability
 
three
 
primary
 
health
 
centers
 
in
 
Manila,
 
one
 
out
 
of 
 
5
 
adults
 
and
 
one
 
out
 
of 
 
10
 
children
 
ages
 
5
 
to
 
15
 
consulting
 
to
 
these
 
centers
 
have
 
mental
 
disorders
 
Common
 
misconceptions
 
MYTH:
 
Abnormal
 
behavior
 
is
 
always
 
bizarre.
 
FACT:
 
The
 
behavior
 
of 
 
many
 
people
 
who
 
are
 
diagnosed
 
as
 
having
 
a
 
mental
 
disorder
 
often
 
cannot
 
be
 
distinguished
 
from
 
that
 
of 
 
normal
 
people
 
MYTH:
 
Normal
 
and
 
abnormal
 
behavior
 
are
 
different
 
in
 
kind
 
FACT:
 
Few,
 
if 
 
any
 
types,
 
of 
 
behavior
 
displayed
 
by
 
people
 
with
 
a
 
mental
 
disorder
 
often
 
cannot
 
be
 
distinguished
 
from
 
that
 
of 
 
normal
 
people.
 
Abnormal
 
behavior
 
consists
 
of 
 
a
 
poor
 
fit
 
between
 
the
 
behavior
 
and
 
the
 
situation
 
in
 
which
 
it
 
is
 
enacted.
 
MYTH:
 
Once
 
people
 
have
 
a
 
mental
 
disorder,
 
they
 
will
 
always
 
have
 
it.
 
FACT:
 
Most
 
people
 
can
 
be
 
successfully
 
treated
 
for
 
a
 
mental
 
disorder.
 
Abnormal
 
Behavior
 
Defined
 
Insanity
 
 –
 
legal
 
term
 
referring
 
to
 
an
 
inability
 
to
 
appreciate
 
the
 
nature
 
and
 
quality
 
or
 
wrongfulness
 
of 
 
one’s
 
acts
 
 
2
 
Abnormal
 
behavior
 
A
 
mental
 
illness
 
that
 
affects
 
or
 
is
 
manifested
 
in
 
a
 
person’s
 
brain
 
and
 
can
 
affect
 
the
 
way
 
a
 
person
 
thinks
 
(APA)
 
Behavior
 
that
 
is
 
deviant
 
(atypical
 
behavior
 
which
 
deviates
 
from
 
what
 
is
 
acceptable
 
in
 
a
 
culture),
 
maladaptive
 
(behavior
 
which
 
interferes
 
with
 
a
 
person’s
 
ability
 
to
 
function
 
effectively
 
in
 
the
 
world),
 
or
 
personally
 
distressful.
 
Only
 
one
 
of 
 
the
 
three
 
criteria
 
is
 
needed
 
for
 
a
 
behavior
 
to
 
be
 
classified
 
as
 
abnormal
 
behavior.
 
Theoretical
 
Approaches
 
to
 
Psychological
 
Disorders
 
1.
 
Biological
 
Approach
 
Medical
 
model
 
(psychological
 
disorders
 
as
 
medical
 
diseases
 
with
 
a
 
biological
 
origin.
 
Brain
 
and
 
genetics
 
Mental 
 
illnesses
 
abnormalities,
 
 patients
afflicted
 
individuals,
 
doctors
 
Drug
 
therapy
 
frequently
 
used
 
to
 
treat
 
disorders
 
Structural
 
views
 
 –
 
abnormalities
 
in
 
the
 
brain
 
structure
 
Biochemical
 
views
 
 –
 
imbalances
 
in
 
neurotransmitters
 
or
 
hormones
 
Genetic
 
views
 
 –
 
disordered
 
genes
 
2.
 
Psychological
 
Approach
 
Psychodynamic
 
perspective
 
 –
 
unconscious
 
conflicts
 
that
 
produce
 
anxiety
 
and
 
result
 
in
 
maladaptive
 
behavior.
 
Behavioral
 
and
 
social
 
cognitive
 
perspective
 
Behavioral 
rewards
 
and
 
punishments
 
in
 
the
 
environment
 
Social 
 
cognitive
observational
 
learning,
 
expectancies,
 
self 
efficacy,
 
self 
control,
 
belief 
 
about
 
oneself 
 
and
 
the
 
world
 
Humanistic
 
perspective
 
capacity
 
for
 
growth,
 
freedom
 
to
 
choose
 
one’s
 
own
 
destiny,
 
and
 
positive
 
personal
 
qualities
 
Psychological
 
disorder
inability
 
to
 
fulfill
 
ones
 
potential
 
arising
 
from
 
societal
 
pressures
 
Person
 
with
 
a
 
disorder
 
 –
 
low
 
self 
concept
 
3.
 
Sociocultural
 
Approach
 
Environmental
 
experiences
 
Emphasis
 
on
 
larger
 
social
 
concepts
 
in
 
which
 
a
 
person
 
lives
 
Marriage
 
or
 
family,
 
neighborhood,
 
socio
economic
 
status,
 
ethnicity,
 
gender,
 
or
 
culture
 
Individuals
 
from
 
low
 
income,
 
minority
 
neighborhoods
 
 –
 
highest
 
rate
 
of 
 
mental
 
disorders
 
Socioeconomic
 
status
 
stronger
 
role
 
than
 
ethnicity
 
 
3
 
Gender
 
(woman
 
are
 
more
 
likely
 
to
 
suffer
 
from
 
internalized
 
disorders
 
while
 
men
 
from
 
externalized
 
disorders)
 
Culture
related
 
disorders
 
(amok,
 
anorexia,
 
windigo)
 
Classifying
 
Abnormal
 
Behavior
 
Advantages
 
Provides
 
a
 
basis
 
for
 
communicating
 
Helps
 
clinicians
 
make
 
predictions
 
DSM
IV
 
Classification
 
System
 
Diagnostic
 
and
 
Statistical
 
Manual
 
of 
 
Mental
 
Disorders,,
 
fourth
 
edition
 
(1994)
 
1952,
 
American
 
Psychiatric
 
Association
 
17
 
major
 
classifications,
 
200
 
specific
 
disorders
 
Multiaxial
 
system
 
Classifies
 
individuals
 
on
 
the
 
basis
 
of 
 
five
 
dimensions,
 
or
 
axes,
 
that
 
take
 
into
 
account
 
the
 
individual’s
 
history
 
and
 
highest
 
level
 
of 
 
functioning
 
in
 
the
 
previous
 
year
 
Ensures
 
that
 
an
 
individual
 
is
 
categorized
 
according
 
to
 
clinical
 
factors
 
Five
 
axes
 
of 
 
DSM
IV
 
Axis
 
I.
 
All
 
personality
 
disorders
 
except
 
personality
 
disorders
 
and
 
mental
 
retardation
 
Axis
 
II.
 
Personality
 
disorders
 
and
 
mental
 
retardation.
 
Axis
 
III.
 
General
 
medical
 
conditions
 
Axis
 
IV.
 
Psychosocial
 
and
 
environmental
 
problems
 
Axis
 
V.
 
Current
 
level
 
of 
 
functioning
 
Controversies
 
and
 
Issues:
 
More
 
non
psychiatrists
 
than
 
ever
 
were
 
responsible
 
for
 
drafting
 
the
 
DSM
IV
 
Labels
 
as
 
psychological
 
disorders
 
what
 
are
 
often
 
thought
 
of 
 
as
 
everyday
 
problems
 
The
 
system
 
focuses
 
strictly
 
on
 
pathology
 
and
 
problems,
 
with
 
a
 
bias
 
toward
 
finding
 
something
 
wrong
 
with
 
anyone
 
who
 
becomes
 
the
 
object
 
of 
 
diagnostic
 
study
 
Labels
 
can
 
be
 
damaging
 
when
 
they
 
draw
 
attention
 
to
 
one
 
aspect
 
of 
 
a
 
person
 
and
 
ignore
 
others
 
Textual 
 
revisions
 
in
 
DSM
IV 
TR
 
correction
 
of 
 
factual
 
errors
 
in
 
the
 
text
 
of 
 
DSM
IV 
 
review
 
of 
 
currency
 
of 
 
information
 
in
 
DSM
IV 
 
changes
 
reflecting
 
research
 
published
 
after
 
1992,
 
which
 
was
 
the
 
last
 
year
 
included
 
in
 
the
 
literature
 
review
 
prior
 
to
 
the
 
publication
 
of 
 
DSM
IV
 
Improvements
 
to
 
enhance
 
the
 
educational
 
value
 
of 
 
DSM
IV
 
Updating
 
of 
 
ICD
 
diagnostic
 
codes,
 
some
 
of 
 
which
 
were
 
changed
 
in
 
1996
 

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