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Cis- Pg8-147

Cis- Pg8-147

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05/09/2014

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C h a p te r
4 :l T In fra s tru c tu re :
H a rd w a rea n dS o ftw a re
L 7 5
B la d es e rv e rs
a reu ltra _
t hi nc o m p u te rs
c on sis t_
in go fac ir c u it
b o a rd
w itfT
p ro c e s s @ rs ,
n T c m
o ry ,a n dn e tw o r4c o n -
n e c tio n s th a t a re s to re d
inra c k s .T h e yta k eu p
/e s ss p a c eth a n tra d i_
tio n a lb o x -b a s e d
s e rv e rs .lllu s tra te d h e re
isth e D e llP o w e rE d g e rM
1 -8 5 5b la d e s e rv e r.
I fy o u rb u s in e s sh a sa num bero fc o m p u te rsn e tw o rk e dto g e th e ro rm a in ta in s
aw eb
s ite ,i t w illn e e da s e rv e r.S e rv e rc o m p u te rsa re -s p e c ific a lyo p tim iz e dt o s u p p o rt
a com _
p u te rn e tw o rk ,e n a b lin gu s e rst os h a refile s ,s o ftw a re ,p .r,p rr.ra td e v ic e s(s u c h
a s p rin t_
e rs ),
o ro th e rn e tw o rkre s o u rc e s .
S e rv e rsa rec la s s ifie da sm id ra n g ec o m p u te rsa sa re
m in ic o m p u te rs ,w h ic ha reu s e di ns y s te m sfo r u n iv e r s itie s ,fa c to rie s ,o rre s e a rc h
la b o ra to rie s .
s e rv e rsh a v ebecom eim p o rta n tc o m p o n e n tso ffirm s 'IT
in fra s tru c tu re s
b e c a u s eth e y
p ro v id eth e h a rd w a rep la tfo rmfo r e le c tro n icc o m m e rc e .B y a d d in g s p e c ia ls o ftw a re ,
th e y
c a nb e c u s to m iz e dt od e liv e r .web pages,p ro c e s sp u rc h a s ea n d s a le tra n s a c tio n s ,
o r
e x c h a n g e
d a taw iths y s te m sin s id eth ecom pany.
Y o u 'lf s o m e tim e sfin d m anys e rv e rslin k e d
to g e th e r
t o p ro v id ea ll th e p ro c e s s in gn e e is fo r la rg ec o m p a n ie s .
If y o u rcom panyh a st o
p ro c e s sm illio n so f fin a n c ia ltra n s a c tio n so rc u s to m e rre c o rd s ,y o u ,lln e e do n e
o fth e s e
T ilt1 g t
c o m p u te rs(3 2 ,g ig aF L O P S )o rm a in fra m e s(u pt oo n eT e raF 1 .o p so r
a trillio n
F L O P S )
t o s o lv eth e s ec h a lle n e e s .
M a in fra m ec o m p u te rsfirs ta p p e a re di nth e m id - l9 6 0 s ,a n de v e rs in c eth e y
h a v eb e e n
u s e db y la rg eb a n k s ,in s u ra n c ec o m p a n ie s ,
s to _ c k
b ro k e ra g e s ,
a ir lin ere s e rv a tio ns y s te m s ,
g o v e rn m e n t
a g e n c ie s ,
and_m any
o th e rty p e so ffirm st o k e e p -tra c ko fh u n d re d so f th o u s a n d s ,
e v e nm illio n s ,o f re c o rd sa n d tra n s a .tio n r.A
m a in frim e
i sa
ra rg e _ c a p a c ity ,
h ig h _
p e rfo rm a n c e
c o m p u te rth a tc a np ro c e s sv a s ta m o u n tso fd a tav e ry r a p id ly .A ir lin e s ,fo r
m s ta n c e '
u s em a in fra m e sto p ro c e s su p w a rd so f3 ,0 0 0re s e rv a tio ntia n s a c tio n s
p e rs e c o n d .
c o n tra ryt oe x p e c ta tio n s ,
th e m a in fra m em a rk e th a s g ro w n s te a d ilyo v e rth e p a s td e c a d e .
IB M ,th e le a d in gm a in fra m ev e n d o r,h a sre p u rp o s e dit s m a in fru -.
, y r t " - ,
s oth e yc a nb e
u s e da sg ia n ts e rv e rsfo r la rg e -s c a lee n te rp ris en e tw o rk sa n dc o rp o ra tew eb
s ite s .A
s in g le
IB Mm a in fra m ec a nru ne n o u g hin s ta n c e so fL in u xo rw in d o w s 's e r v e rs o ftw a re
t o re p la c e
th o u s a n d s
o fs m a lle rW in d o w s _ b a s e d
s e rv e rs .
As u p e rc o m p u te r
i s a s p e c ia llyd e s ig n e da n dm ores o p h is tic a te d
c o m p u te rth a ti su s e d
fo rta s k sre q u irin g e x tre m e lyra p iia n dJ o m p le xc a lc u la titn s* i t n
tn o u ru n d so f v a r ia b le s ,
m illio n so fm e a s u re m e n ts ,
a n dth o u s a n d so f e q u a tio n s .s u p e rc o m p u te rstr a d itio n a llyh a v e
b e e nu s e dine n g in e e r in ga n a ly s iso f s tru c tu re s ,
s c ie n tifice x p lo ra tio na n ds im u la tio n s ,a n d
rn ilita ryw o rk ,s u c ha sc la s s ifie dw e a p o n sre s e a rc ha n dw e a th e rfo re c a s tin g .
Afe wp riv a te
b u s in e s s
firm su s es u p e rc o m p u te rs .
F o rin s ta n c e ,
v o lv oa n dm osto th e ra u to m o b ilem anu-
fa c tu re rsu s es u p e rc o m p u te rs
t os im u la tev e h ic le c ra s hte s ts ;N u te xs c le n c e sp u rc h a s e da
s u p e rc o m p u te r
t oc o n d u c tg e n e tics im u la tio n s .
If y o u 're a lo n g -te rm w e a th e rfo re c a s te r,
s u c ha s th e N a tio n a lo c e a n ica n dA tm o s p h e ric
A d m in is tra tio n(N o A A ),o rth e N a tio n a lH u rric a n ec e n te r,a n dy o u rc h a lle n g eis
to p re d ic t
th em ovem ento fw e a th e rs y s te m sb a s e do n h u n d re d so fth o u s a n d so f
m e a s u re m e n ts .
a n d
f f if f iW
7 L 6
F ig u re 4 -2
C lie n t/S e rv e r
C o m p u tin g
Inc lie n t/s erv er comp u t-

in g , c o m p u te rp ro c e s s -
in gi ss p lit b e tw e e n
c lie n t m a c h in e sa n d

s e rv e rm a c h in e slin k e d
b ya n e tw o rk .U s e rs
in te rfa c e w ith th e c lie n t
m a c h in e s .
th o u s a n d so f e q u a tio n s ,
y o u w o u ld w anta c c e s st oas u p e rc o m p u te r
o rad is trib u te d n e tw o rk
o fc o m p u te rsc a lle dag rid(13 0t oIg 0
T e raFL O p S ).
G n :dc o m p u tin g 'n u o lu e sc o n n e c tin g
ilyre m o tec o m p u te rsin to a s in g le n e t_
w o rkt o c re a tea"v irtu a ls u p e rc o m p u t
e r"b y c o m b in in gth e c o m p u ta tio n a l
pow ero f a llcom -
p u te rso n th e g rid . G ridc o m p u tin gta k e s a d v a n ta g eo fth e fa c ith a t m ostc o m p u te rs
inth e
U n ite d S ta te su s eth e ir c e n t r a lp r o c e s s i n gu n itso na v e ra g eo n ly2 5 p e rc e n to f
th e tim e fo r
th e w o rk th e yh a v eb e e na s s ig n e d ,
le a v in g th e s eid lere s o u rc e sa v a ila b lefo r o th e rp ro c e s s -
in gta s k s 'B y u s in g th e c o m b in e dpow ero f th o u s a n d sof PCsa n do th e r
c o m p u L rsn e t-
w o rk e dto g e th e r,th e g ridi s a b let os o lv ec o m p lic a te dp ro b le m sa t
s u p e rc o m p u te r
s p e e d sa t
afa rlo w e rc o s t.
P riv a tefirm sa re b e g in n in gt ou s ec o m p u tin gg rid sb e c a u s eo f th e ir g re a te rr e lia b ility
th a n s u p e rc o m p u te rso re v e ns ta n d a rdm a in fra m e s ,h ig h e rc a p a c ity ,a n dlo w e r c o s t.
F o r
e x a m p le ,J o h n s o n&
J o h n s o n 'sp h a rm a c e u tic a ls
re s e a rc ha n dd e v e lo p m e n t
u n it is h a rn e s s -
in gth e s p a repow erof 400P C sa n d6 4 L in u xs e rv e rsfo r
a"v irtu a l;' d ru g -s c re e n in gp ilo t
p ro g ra mi nB e lg iu m .In th e U n ite d S ta te s ,
th ecom panyi s u s in gm oreth a n1 0 0 p C sa n d
w o rk s ta tio n s
fo rm o d e lin gc lin ic a ld ru gtria lsln ic a d e la ,Z O 0 S ).
f f i m n " u
p N tmrfld m tw m rfrs m
* ,x n w ,fi
{ } Wf ;
m m f,/
ffiw -.w
w wf f im rmp m til
u u 6 4 1
U n le s sy o u 'r ei nas m a llb u s in e s sw ith a s ta n d -a lo n e
c o m p u te r,
y o u 'llb eu s in gn e tw o rk e d
c o m p u te rs
fo r m o s tp r o c e s s i n g
ta s k s .
T h eu s eo fm u ltip lec o m p u te rslin k e db yaio m m u n ic a -
tio n sn e tw o rkfo rp ro c e s s in gi s c a lle dd is trib u te d p ro c e s s in !.(C e n tra liz e dp ro c e s s in g ,
i n
w h ic ha ll p r o c e s s in g
i s a c c o m p lis h e d
b yo n ela rg ec e n tra l
c o m p u te ri sm uchle s sc o m m o n .)
o n e
w id e lyu s e dfo rm
o f d is trib u te dp ro c e s s in gi s
c lie n t/s e rv e rc o m p u tin g .
C lie n t/s e rv e r
c o m p u tin gs p litsp ro c e s s in gb e tw e e n" c lie n ts "a n d "s e rv e rs ."B o th a reo nth e
n e tw o rk 'b u te a c hm a c h in ei s a s s ig n e dfu n c tio n si ti sb e s ts u ite d
t o p e rfo rm .T h ec lie n ti sth e
u s e rp o in t o f e n try fo r th e re q u ire dfu n c tio na n dis n o r m a llyad e s k to pc o m p u te r,
w o rk s ta -
tio n ,o r la p to pc o m p u te r.
T h eu s e rg e n e r a llyin te ra c tsd ire c tly o n ly w ithth e c iie n t p o rtio no f
th e a p p lic a tio n ,o fte nt oin p u td a tao r re trie v ed a tafo r fu rth e ra n a ly s is .
T h es e rv e ip ro v id e s
th e c lie n tw iths e rv ic e s .
S e rv e rss to rea n dp ro c e s ss h a re dd a taa n da ls o p e rfo rm b a c k -e n d
fu n c tio n sn o tv is ib let o u s e rs ,
s u c ha s-u n a g in gn e tw o rka c tiv itie s .
F ig u re4 -2 illu s tra te sth e
c lie n t/s e rv e r
c o m p u tin gc o n c e p t.C o m p u tin go nth e In te rn e tu s e sth e c lie n t/s e rv e r
m odel
(s e eC h a p te r6 ).
F ig u re4 -2lllu s tra te sth e s im p le s tc lie n t/s e rv e rn e tw o rk ,c o n s is tin go fa c lie n tc o m p u te r
n e tw o rk e dt oa s e rv e rc o m p u te r,w ithp ro c e s s in gs p lit b e tw e e nth e tw oty p e s
o f m a c h in e s .
T h isi s c a lle da tw o -tie re dc lie n t/s e rv e ra rc h ite c tu re .
W h e re a ss im p le c lie n t/s e rv e rn e tw o rk s
c a nb e fo u n di n s m a llb u s in e s s e s ,
m ostc o rp o ra tio n s
h a v em ore.o -p l.* ,
m u ltitie re d(o fte n
c a lle dN -tie r)c lie n t/s e rv e ra rc h ite c tu re s ,i nw h ic hth ew o rk o f th e e n tiren e tw o rk
i s b a l-
a n c e do v e rs e v e ra ld iffe re n tle v e lso fs e rv e rs ,d e p e n d in go n th e k in d
o f s e rv ic eb e in g
re q u e s te d
(s e eF ig u re4 -3 ).
F o rin s ta n c e ,
a tth efirs tle v e la W ebs e rv e rw ill s e rv eaW ebp a g et o
a c lie n ti n re s p o n s e
t oa re q u e s tfo r s e rv ic e .W ebs e rv e rs o ftw a rei s r e s p o n s ib lefo r lo c a tin g
a n dm a n a g in g
s to re dW ebp a g e s .
Ifth ec lie n tre q u e s tsa c c e s st oac o rp o ra tes y s te m(a p ro d u c tlis to rp ric l
in fo rm a tio n ,
fo rin s ta n c e ),
th ere q u e s t
i sp a s s e da lo n gt oa na p p lic a tio ns e rv e r.A p p lic a tio n
P a r tll:In fo rm a tio n
T e c h n o lo g y
S e rv e r
C lie n t
* w
.
U serin te rfa c s
.
D a ta
'A p p ric a tio n
ru n c tio n
:fto " i[ii? :J J J ,.J ::"
W
4 :l T In fra s tru c tu re :
H a rd w a rea n dS o ftw a re
+- - - - -
e -b u s in e s s .
le ro n e si s c a lle dd o w n s iz in g .
In p u t,a n dO u tp u tT e c h n o lo g y
lr s o ftw a reh a n d le sa ll a p p lic a tio no p e ra tio n sb e tw e e nau s e ra n da no rg a n iz a tio n ,s
-e n db u s in e s ss y s te m s .
T h ea p p lic a tio ns e rv e rm ayre s id eo nth esam ec o m p u te ra sth e
s e rv e r
o ro ni t sow nd e d ic a te dc o m p u te r.
c h a p te rs5a n d6 p ro v id em ored e ta ilo no th e r
r so fs o ftw a reth a ta reu s e di nm u ltitie re dc lie n t/s e rv e r
a rc h ite c tu re s
fo r e -c o m m e rc e
+ -+
W ebS e rv e r
A p p lic a tio nS e rv e r
M u ltitie re d
C lie n t/S e rv e r
N e tw o rk(N _ T ie r)
a m u ltitie re d
c lie n t/s e rv e r
n e tw o rk ,
c lie n tre q u e s tsfo r s e rv ic ea reh a n d le d
b yd iffe re n tle v e ls
s e rv e rs .
4 -3
c lie n t/s e rv e rc o m p u tin ge n a b le sb u s in e s s e s
t o d is trib u tec o m p u tin gw o rk a c ro s sas e rie s
s m a lle r ,in e x p e n s iv em a c h in e sth a tc o s tm uch le s sth a n m in ic o m "p u te rso rc e n tra liz e d
in fra m es y s te m s .T h e re s u lti sa n e x p lo s io ni nc o m p u tin gpow era n d
a p p ric a tio n s
ll: : : : : "t1 ""^ T l;
lT t:o .c e s s
o ftra n s fe rrin g
a p p lic a tio n s
fio mla rg ec o m p u te rs
t o
I n a d d itio nt oh a rd w a refo r p ro c e s s in gd a ta ,y o u ,nn e e dte c h n o ro g ie sfo r d a ta
s to ra g e ,a n d
in p u ta n do u tp u t'S to ra g ea n din p u ta n do u tp u id e v ic e sa rec a lle d p lrifire ra t
d e v ic e sb e c a u s e
th e ya reo u ts id eth e m a in c o m p u te rs y s te mu n it.
$ e c o n d a ryS to n a g e T e c h m m iln g y
E le c tro n icc o m m e rc ea n de le c tro n icb u s in e s s ,
a n dre g u la tio n s ,
s u c ha ss a rb a n e s -o x le y ,
h a v em ades to ra g eas tra te g icte c h n o lo g y .T h eam ounto fd a tath a t
c o m p a n ie sn o wn e e dt o
s to rei s d o u b lin ge v e ry1 2t o1 8m o n th s .T h e p rim a rys to ra g ete c h n o lo g ie s
a rem a g n e tic
d is k ,o p tic a ld is k ,m a g n e ticta p e ,a n ds to ra g en e tw o rk s .
M a g n e ticD is k
rh em ostw id e lyu s e ds e c o n d a rys to ra g em e d iu mto d a yi sth e m a g n e tic
d is .k '
P C sh a v eh a rd d riv e s ,a n dla rg em a in fra m eo rm id ra n g ec o m p u te rs y s te m s
h a v em u l-
tip leh a rd d iq k d riv e sb e c a u s eth e y ie q u ireim m e n s ed is ks to ra g e c a p a c ityin
th e g ig a b y te
a n dte ra b y tera n g e .Som ep c su s eflo p p y d is k s ,b u tth e yh a v e
Ie e n 'la r g e ly s u p p la n te db y
U S Bfla s h d riv e s ,a ls oknow na su S B -iriv e s .A
u S Bfla s hd riv e p ro v id e sp o rta b lefla s h
m em orys to ra g eb yp lu g g in g in toac o m p u te r'su s B
p o rt.I t .u n p ro u id .u pto6 g ig a b y te so f
p o rta b les to ra g ec a p a c itya n diss m a lle n o u g ht of i tin toa p o c k " i.
L a rg ec o m p u te rsw ithm a s s iv es to ra g eie q u ire m e n tsu s ead is k te c h n o lo g yc a lle d
R A ID
(R e d u n d a n t
A rra yo f In e x p e n s iv eo is t< s ).R A IDd e v ic e sp a c k a g em oreth a n1 0 0d is kd ri-
v e s ,ac o n tro lle rc h ip ,a n ds p e c ia liz e ds o ftw a rein toa s in g le ,la rg ; u n it
d e liv e r in gd a tao v e r
m u ltip lep a th ss im u lta n e o u s ly .

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